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Parkinson and Alzheimer

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  • 1. PARKINSON & ALZHEIMER

2. PARKINSON It was discovered by James Parkinson in 1817. Chronic and degenerative illness. Their causes are not recognised and it affects mainly 65 or more years old people. 3. PARKINSON Destruction of cells located on the black substance. It is located on the brain region in charge of producing dopamineNeurotransmitter responsible for movements. High percent of black substance is took out neuronal loss dopamine loss 4. PARKINSON Symptoms: Neck, back and extremities pain. Appearance of: Trembling: first symptom in 70 % of cases, its normally started in a hand and transmitted to head and lower extremities. It is reduced with dream and movements, and incremented with stress. Bradykinesia: slowness of movement, loss of capacity to get voluntary movements. Loss of upper extremities. Language variations, weak voice. Difficulties in normal life. Muscle stiffness: produced due to extremity movements resistance. Its painful and produces muscle contractures and normally concerns to cervical muscles producing cogwheel rigidity. 5. PARKINSON The patient normally takes this posture: Trembling Flex headFlex BodyDrawn up knees 6. PARKINSON Some of the other common symptoms are: Dementia. Depression. Excessive salivation. Postural hypotension. Reduction inblinking. Sleep disorders. 7. PARKINSON Treatment: L-dopa: Its used to improve bradykinesia and muscle stiffness. In some cases it also improve trembling. The aim is to extend the treatment until the patient needs it to get his diary life. It normally produces an improvement in 80 % during first five years, then the patient normally has difficulties. The life expectancy after treatment is about 20 and 30 years. Surgery: its really dangerous and only indicated in 70 or less years old patients, with important symptoms and secondary effects in medications. 8. ALZHEIMER First case was identified by Alois Alzheimer in 1901. Irreversible and progressive illness referred to brain and its capacities. Slowly, it destroys memory, critical-thinkingskills and capacity of doing easier works. 9. ALZHEIMER Symptoms: Memory loss.Shrunk brain Difficulties in language. Unpredictable behaviour. Plaques in the brain Loss of connexion between neurons and brain. Healthy neurons start working bad. Tangles in the brain Finally they die.It is extended to the hippocampus. Essential for memories. 10. ALZHEIMER Main types of Alzheimer: Mild Alzheimer: people are recognised during this period. To be lost in streets.Difficulties in money management.Repeat the same thing more than once. 11. ALZHEIMER Moderate Alzheimer: Damage produced un brain areas referred to language.Rational and conscious thought.Sensory processing.Memory and confusion are incremented.Patients start having problems recognising their families.Hallucinations, ravings and impulsive behaviours are possible. 12. ALZHEIMER Severe Alzheimer: Plaques and tangles totally extendedPatients cant communicate.Patients depend totally on someone.brain and tissues shrunk 13. ALZHEIMER Causes arent known. Maybe causes include genetic and ambient factors and lifestyle. Symptoms appeared between 10 and 20 years before we can see them. Its a complex illness and there is not an effective treatment. Treatments are concentrated in behaviour helps and they try to prevent the disease.

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