Topic- Packaging materials and systems for liquid, concentrated, dried, frozen and fat-rich dairy products.Course Code: AHD - 411 Guided by-Dr. Anuj Gautam
Presented by:Shreya RaiR-13042
PaperboardPaperboard is the main material in our cartons. It provides stability, strength and smoothness to the printing surface.
PolyethylenePolyethylene protects against outsidemoisture and enables the paperboard to stick to the aluminium foil.
Aluminium foilAluminium foilprotects against oxygen and light to maintain the nutritional value and flavours of the food in the package in ambient temperatures.
RETORT PACKAGINGA retort pouch is a flexible package in which prepared food is hermetically sealed for long term unrefrigerated storage. Retort is a process that uses heat and pressure to cook food in sealed packages.It is the most acceptable form of food preservation in rigid, semi rigid and flexible packaging system.
AIMS OF RETORT PACKAGING:
To destroy microorganisms by heating.Thermal processing of food with package itself.To protect the food from chemical enzymes.To make commercially sterile food.
Benefits: Offer greater shelf appeal as theres a larger area for graphics and text. Can be manufactured in numerous sizes and shapes
Selection of the correct packaging material provides superb product protection, optimal chemical resistance and an oxygen barrier
Offer high temperature resistance, toughness and printability Products have a longer shelf-life
Easier to distribute and therefore have lower transportation costs
Heat sealable and sterilisable
Easy opening and reclose
Larger surface area for marketing information
No refrigeration required
Packaging of Fat- richDairy products
TYPES1.Cream Cream is a yellowish component of milk, rich in fat globules, that rises to the surface naturally if milk is allowed to stand. a. Low fat cream containing milk fat not less than 25% by weight.b. Medium fat cream containing milk fat not less than 40% by weight.c. High fat cream containing milk fat not less than 60% by weight.
2. ButterButter may be defined as fat concentrate, which is obtained by churning cream, gathering the fat into a compact mass and then working it. Butter consists of 80-90% fat with maximum of 16% water.
3. Fat SpreadsFat spreads are solid plasticized foods of water in fat type of emulsion which by principle contain an aqueous phase as well as fats and oils.
4. GheeGhee means the pure heat clarified fat derived solely from milk or curd or from desi (cooking) butter or from cream to which no colouring matter or preservative has been added. It contains 99-99.5% fat.
5. Butter oilButter oil and Anhydrous Milk fat / Anhydrous Butter oil means the fatty products derived exclusively from milk and/ or products obtained from milk by means of process which result in almost total removal of water and milk solids not fat.
Packaging of CreamThe exclusion of light is important as light can initiate auto oxidation of milk fat resulting in the production of rancid flavors.
Cream may be tainted by the absorption of odors from various sources and packaging material must, therefore, be impermeable to gases.The absorption of moisture can cause the quality of cream to deteriorate and packaging must, therefore, be impermeable to both.
The design of the container can also influence product quality. With some creams serum separation may occur during storage and the ability to shake the contents to ensure mixing can be important to consumer acceptability.
Table cream: Table cream is packaged for retail sale in units similar to those for milk such as glass bottle, paper carton, low density polyethylene sachet, plastic bottles etc. When table cream is produced for the purpose of coffee whitening, UHT processing is combined with aseptic packaging.
PACKAGING FOR PASTEURIZED CREAMRetail packaging:Pasteurized cream is packaged in cartons and bottles for retail sale with package size usually being in the range of approximately 100-1000 ml.
The most common form of packaging used is the injection moulded polystyrene pot, or flat topped round container.
To improve the barrier properties of plastics packaging for fresh cream, multilayer materials may incorporate an ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) layer. Once filled, the containers are closed with a heat sealed polyethylene/ aluminum foil laminate.
Bulk packaging:It may be used for catering or institutional use. Normally plastic (e.g. polythene) bags contained in plastic crates or cardboard cartons are used for bulk packaging. In this case package size ranges from 5 to 25 liters.
Packaging of Sterilized CreamIn case of retort sterilized cream, tin cans and glass bottles are used for packaging.
Sterilization takes place in a retort or hydrostatic sterilizer using temperature time regimes of 110-120C for 10-20 min.
A calcium sequestering agent, such as sodium citrate or a sodium phosphate, may be added to make more casein available for stabilizing the emulsion.
The unit packaging volumes have to be relatively small (400 ml) because of the restriction on heat transfer with larger volumes
Packaging of UHT CREAMAseptic canning
Plastic (polythene), paper and foil laminate cartons and Plastic (polystyrene or polypropylene).
Lacquered aluminum or tin plate cans are used for Aerosol cream.
Preformed pots or with laminates.
Plastic ( polythene) bag contained within a cardboard carton is used for bulk packaging of UHT cream with unit volumes are in the range 5-1000L.
Packaging of ButterPackaging material for butter should have excellent barrier properties such as: It should be moisture proof It should be grease proof It should be impervious to light It should have good strength
Some of the packaging materials used for butter packaging are:i) Parchment paper also known as butter paper.ii) wax coated paperiii) cellophaneiv) cardboard boxes and teak wood drums lined with food grade plasticv) Aluminium foil laminatesvi) Lacquered tin cans
Techniques of packaging1.Manual moulding and wrapping
2. Mechanical moulding and hand wrapping
Packaging of GheeRequirements for packaging material:1 .Good fat resistance 2. Barrier properties against oxygen and moisture. 3. It shall be temper proof.
A major portion of ghee is packed in lacquered tinplate containers of capacities ranging from 250 litres to 15 litres / kilograms. Since the product is very sensitive to oxygen, the tinplate containers are filled to the brim without any air gap.
For shorter shelf-life, 200 ml, 500 ml and 1 litre capacity pouches made of polyethylene film, multi layer co-extruded films of LDPE/HDPE are used.For long term storage, stainless steel containers or tinplate cans are desirable.
Ghee is also marketed in lined cartons with flexible laminated plastics as inner liner materials, laminates and Bag - in - Box containers. The bag is vacuum filled and inserted manually into the box. Seven layer Nylon containing self standing pouch with closure is also used.
Another form is consisting of a multi-ply collapsible bag with a tap which can be housed in a rigid outer container. The container can be a box, a crate or a drum whose capacity varies between 3 and 200 liters.
LIQUID DAIRY PRODUCTS
Includes milk products like Butter milk, Whey, Lassi, and different types of milk like, Recombined milk, Toned milk, Vitaminised milk etc.PackagingPaper Based - Paper-based packaging is lightweight and low cost, but its susceptible to moisture and tearing.
Plastic - Plastic is used to hold fresh and pasteurized milk. Some of the drawbacks of plastic containers include becoming fragile at low temperatures and melting at high temperatures.
Glass - Glass bottles are still used today by some dairy manufacturers, not as widely used as plastic or paper-based packaging. While glass is heat resistant, it is also heavy and fragile.
Metal - Both aluminum and tin are used to make cans for milk products, such as evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk. Advantages are the strength of the material, grease-proof qualities, and the barrier properties. One drawback to aluminum is its vulnerability to acids. Tin tends to be heavy and expensive.
Wood - Barrels made from wood are used for bulk packaging of such milk products as sweetened condensed milk and buttermilk. It avoids tainting the milk.
Different types of packaging of Liquid Dairy products
PACKAGING OF CONCENTRATEDDAIRY PRODUCTS
Evaporated milkEvaporated milk is a concentrated milk product with a dry matter content of at least 25%.
Heat desiccated milk products include-
Khoa- It is a partially dehydrated whole milk product prepared by the continuous heating of milk in a karahi over a direct fire while also constantly stirring cum scraping by using a khunti till it reaches its semi solid consistency(Pat). Types of Khoa- Pindi: Moisture- 31-33% Dhap: Moisture- 37-44% Danedar: Moisture- 35-40%Rabri- It is a concentrated and sweetened whole milk product containing several layers of clotted cream. It contains 30% moisture.
Condensed milkCondensed milk is a concentrated milk product with sugar. The product usually contains not more than 27% of water , 4346% of sugar and at least 28% of dry matter of milk. Condensed milk has a pale yellow colour, smooth consistency and high viscosity and is a sweet