1. A N I T A D E C I A N N I - B R O W N E M P I R E S T A T E C O L L E G E Open Educational & Open Educational Resources
2. Open Educational & Open Educational Resources What is Open Education (OE) and Open Educational Resources (OER)? Benefits and Issues/Concerns MOOCs and the impact on higher education
3. What is Open Educational Resources? Open provision of educational resources, enabled by information and communication technologies, for consultation, use and adaptation by a community of users for non-commercial purposes.1 Used by teachers, educational institutions and students; teachers being more primary users, students being secondary users. Include learning objects such as lecture material, references and readings, simulations, experiments and demonstrations, syllabi, curricula and teachers guides. (UNESCO, 2002)2 1 Neary, M. and Winn, J. (2012) Open education: Common(s), commonism and the new common wealth. Ephemera articles, Theory and Politics in Organizations. 12(4). P. 406 422. 2 Wiley, David (2007) On Sustainability of Open Educational Resources Initiatives in Higher Education. www.oecd.org/edu/oer
4. Benefits of Open Educational Resources Universal access to learning and enrich the learning experience Assist with both teaching and learning Ease of sharing and distributing materials via sites such as Creative Commons Less expensive resources for students Continually improved resources
5. Open Educational Resources Khan Academy Creative Commons Khan Academy is a OER that uses videos, skill assessment and badging to evaluate skills and learning. This resources is available for use through funding of the Gates Foundation. An excellent example of a educational tool/resource that can help student learn and assess their learning.
6. OER and Copyright Copyright is not necessarily compatible with the principles of sharing, creativity and learner engagement Knowledge should be free Educators use OER to improve educational systems and learning opportunities The line between content producers and users is becoming blurred Should be amendable to adaption and improvement Bissell, A. Permission granted: open licensing for educational resources. (2009) Open Learning. 24(1). P. 97 - 106
7. Creative Commons Widely used works that allow sharing of cultural, educational and scientific content Free and easy to use Gives flexibility to the creator and protects users Options for usage: All rights reserved or Some rights reserved Licensing Choices: Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike No Derivative Works Bissell, A. Permission granted: open licensing for educational resources. (2009) Open Learning. 24(1). P. 97 - 106
8. Disadvantages of Open Educational Resources Quality and validity issues Technological issues Intellectual property/copyright issues Sustainability
9. Open Educational Resources Blogs Blogs are self-publishing sites where authors can choose to write and post about anything: news, personal opinion, pop culture, education, politics, etc. Most often, it is is written as a personal opinion or perspective on a topic. Information, images and videos taken from these sites may violate copyright laws. Wikipedia Wikipedia is not necessarily considered a reliable source for citing data; however it does continue to improve. Students can use data collected from reliable cited sources within Wikipedia to research topics and data through journals and periodicals.
10. Image by Gavin Blake, based on v:Openness and flexibility https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=555325557833359&set=a.555325261166722.1073741825.152524824780103&type=3&theater
11. Open Educational Resources Movement Around the world there are currently over 2,500 open access courses available (opencoureswares) from over 200 universities: United States had 1,700 courses made available by seven university-based projects China had 451 courses made available by 176 university members of the China Open Resources for Education (CORE) consortium. Japan had 350 courses made available by ten universities participating in the Japanese OCW Consortium France had 178 courses made available by eleven member universities of the ParisTech OCW project Wiley, David (2007) On Sustainability of Open Educational Resources Initiatives in Higher Education. www.oecd.org/edu/oer
12. Open Educational Resources Advantages for educational systems in developing countries: Help save course content development time and money Facilitating sharing of knowledge and academic information and resources Addressing the digital divide by providing capacity-building resources for educators Help preserve and circulate indigenous knowledge Has the capacity to improve the quality of education at all levels Can be reused, mixed, altered, localized and dont need permission to use them. Olcott, D. Reflection OER perspectives: emerging issues for universities. (2012) Distance Education 33(2). P. 283-290
13. Open Educational Resources Barriers: Lack of awareness of what OER really is University elitism Faculty resistance Publishers that lobby against OER because of the impact they have on their business Olcott, D. Reflection OER perspectives: emerging issues for universities. (2012) Distance Education 33(2). P. 283-290
14. Open Educational Resources Issues facing OER movement: Open Education Practices (OEP) a set of activities and support around the creation, use and repurposing of OER. Promoting OER to teachers at all levels. Olcott, D. Reflection OER perspectives: emerging issues for universities. (2012) Distance Education 33(2). P. 283-290
15. What is Open Education? Open education is the efforts by individuals and organizations across the world to use the Internet to share the following inside and outside formal educational settings: Knowledge Ideas Teaching practices Infrastructure Tools and resources Murphy, A. (2013) Open educational practices in higher education: institutional adoption and challenges. Distance Education. 34(2). P. 201 217
16. Bukola, Ope. Why Open Education Matters: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cHQp33rbg5k
17. Massive Open Online Courses (MOOC) According to Oxford Dictionary, a MOOC is a course of study made available over the Internet without charge to a very large number of people MOOCs are appealing to the masses Can bring a global perspective Bonvillian, W., & Singer, S. (2013). The Online Challenge to Higher Education. Issues in Science and Technology. P. 23 30.
18. Plourde, M.. Mathplourde on Flickr http://www.flickr.com/photos/mathplourde/8620174342/sizes/l/in/photostream/
19. MOOCs Democratize Higher Education Represent the latest steps in distance learning development Through the use of social media and Web 2.0, virtual classrooms have been opened to the masses Have been legitimized by the courses offered at Stanford, MIT, Yale, Harvard, Duke, and Carnegie Mellon Universities Allow educational access to students from around the world. Courses are not constricted by time, place or cost Carver, L. & Harrison, L. (2013). MOOCs and Democratic Education. Liberal Education, p. 20 25.
20. Lewin, T. Welcome to the Brave New World of MOOCs. (2012) http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KqQNvmQH_YM
21. Benefits of MOOCs How far reaching can MOOCs be? Stanford University offered a MOOC on artificial intelligence, which had 160,000 students from 209 different countries enrolled.1 MIT and Harvard developed edX, a MOOC platform available to 27 universities, including 6 Asian universities. 2 Offer educational opportunities to individuals who may not otherwise be able to participate 2 1 Carver, L. & Harrison, L. (2013). MOOCs and Democratic Education. Liberal Education, p. 20 25. 2 Bonvillian, W., & Singer, S. (2013). The Online Challenge to Higher Education. Issues in Science and Technology. P. 23 30.
22. Disadvantages of MOOCs Under current structure, very difficult to sustain over time a free education Poor participation a MOOC offered at University of Pennsylvania had only half the students who registered for the course view the lecture and only 4 percent completing the course. 1 Loses the opportunity for meaningful discussion and grading/feedback so students have an assessment of their work. 2 1 Data Mining Exploses Embarrassing Problems for Massive Open Online Courses. MIT Technology Review (2013) 2 Heller, N. (2013) Is College Moving Online? The New Yorker.
23. Educause. MOOCs and Beyond (2013) http://vimeo.com/70811271