Open Education: A "Simple" Introduction

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Slides supporting a pre-meeting workshop for the OpenEd Leadership Summit, introducing people to OER for the first time.

Text of Open Education: A "Simple" Introduction

  • Open Ed: A Simple Introduction David Wiley, PhD CAO, Lumen Learning Education Fellow, Creative Commons
  • #openls
  • Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  • Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  • Education is Sharing Faculty with students Students with teachers
  • Faculty Share With Students Knowledge and skills Feedback and criticism Encouragement
  • Students Share With Faculty Questions in Class Assignments Exams
  • Successful Educators Share most compeltely with the most students
  • 2008 Professor in Southern US Claimed (c) of his class lectures, declared student notes derivative works, and asserted control over their use
  • Demented with the mania of owning things Walt Whitman
  • If there is no sharing ...there is no education.
  • Interlude: A Riddle What can you give without giving it away?
  • Ideas are Magical (Non-rival) Can be given without being given away
  • He who receives ideas from me, receives instruction himself without lessening mine; as he who lights his taper at mine receives light without darkening me. Thomas Jefferson
  • Physical Expressions Are Not To give a book you must give it away
  • Expressions Are Different To give a book you must give it away
  • When Expressions Are Digital They also become magical
  • Unprecedented Capacity We can share (and educate) as never before
  • Except We Cant regulates copying, adapting, and distributing those copies
  • Internet Enables What to do? Copyright Forbids
  • Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  • Incredible Financial Pressure Incredible Financial Pressure
  • Tuition Changes... Involve the State Legislature, the State Board of Regents
  • Tuition Changes... Involve the State Legislature, the State Board of Regents Extremely complex politically
  • $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 Tuition Textbooks Annual Costs $1288 $1666
  • Textbook Pricing in Context Provider Cost Netflix 20,000 Movies (and TV) $7.99 / month Hulu Plus 45,000 TV (and Movies) $7.99 / month Spotify 15M Songs $9.99 / month CourseSmart 1 Biology Textbook $20.25 / month
  • A Wizard of Earthsea Studying from texts written in disappearing ink
  • Disappearing Ink Strategies Buyback Rental E-books Online subscriptions
  • Mixed Messages... This GE course is critically important Youll never need this book again
  • The Access Compromise Students trade ownership for access As digital grows, this provides publishers with perfect control
  • 60% Sometimes 23% Regularly skip
  • Textbook Changes... Involve individual faculty, sometimes a department
  • Textbook Changes... Involve individual faculty, sometimes a department Relatively straightforward
  • Internet Enables What to do? Copyright Forbids Insane or Immoral Textbook Costs plus
  • Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  • Use copyright to enable sharing
  • http://creativecommons.org/
  • Open Educational Resources
  • What are Open Educational Resources (OER)? Any kind of teaching materials textbooks, syllabi, lesson plans, videos, readings, exams
  • What are Open Educational Resources (OER)? (1) Are free for anyone to access, and (2) Include free copyright permission to engage in the 5R activities
  • Make and own copiesRetain Use in a wide range of waysReuse Adapt, modify, and improveRevise Combine two or moreRemix Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  • Internet Enables OER Allows Leveraging the full technical capability of the internet
  • Over 500M OER in the World Over half a billion pieces of content use Creative Commons licenses
  • Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  • You may not take any Online Course offered by Coursera or use any Statement of Accomplishment as part of any tuition-based or for- credit certification or program for any college, university, or other academic institution without the express written permission from Coursera.
  • Open Educational Resources Open Course Ware Open Courses Open Textbooks Open Course Frame- works
  • Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  • Two Stories
  • Developmental Math From textbook and MyMathLab ($170) To OER and MyOpenMath ($0 / $3)
  • % Completing with C or Better 48.4% 60.2% 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% Spring 2011 No OER Spring 2013 All OER
  • Golden Ratio 48% / $170 = 0.28% succeeding per dollar 60% / $3 = 20% succeeding per dollar
  • Associates of Business Z Degree Graduate without ever buying a textbook Worlds first all-OER degree
  • % Dropping in Fall 2013 8.2% 2.3% 0% 1% 2% 3% 4% 5% 6% 7% 8% 9% Traditional Sections Z Degree Sections
  • When a student drops, it.. Slows down their graduation Costs the institution tuition dollars
  • Utah 7-12
  • Method Quasi-experimental design with: Treatment and Control Group Pre and Post Test Dependent variable: Score on 2012 statewide standardized science exam Independent variable: Textbook condition 15 Covariates: including age, gender, special education, English language proficiency, 2011 test data, 2011 GPA, and race
  • Propensity Score Matching Increased group balance by 98%
  • Results IRT scaled scores increased with open textbooks, p < .001 Multiple r squared = .635 (variance in scores accounted for in our model)
  • Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  • The World is Changing How are our institutions responding?
  • Analog Digital Music, Phones, TV, Newspapers, Movies, Journals, &c.
  • Tethered Mobile Phones, Internet Access, Employment
  • Concealing Sharing Photos, Videos, Journal Entries
  • Isolated Connected People, Content, Systems
  • Generic Personal Cars, Computers, Mobile Phones
  • Consuming Creating Newspapers / Blogs Movies & TV / YouTube
  • Closed Open Research (Articles, Journals) Data (Government, Weather, GIS) Content (Open Educational Resources)
  • Then vs Now Analog Digital Tethered Mobile Concealing Sharing Isolated Connected Generic Personal Consuming Creating Closed Open
  • Education vs Everyday Analog Digital Tethered Mobile Concealing Sharing Isolated Connected Generic Personal Consuming Creating Closed Open
  • Daily Divide (As opposed to the digital divide)
  • Academic (This is where the common usage derives)
  • Academic (This is where the common usage derives)
  • What About Online Learning?
  • What About Online Learning? Very innovative in 1993!
  • Online Learning Analog or Digital Tethered or Mobile Concealing or Sharing Isolated or Connected Generic or Personal Consuming or Creating Closed or Open
  • What About MOOCs?
  • MOOCs Analog or Digital Tethered or Mobile Concealing or Sharing(?) Isolated or Connected Generic or Personal Consuming or Creating Closed or Open
  • Open is Fundamental Why?
  • Make and own copiesRetain Use in a wide range of waysReuse Adapt, modify, and improveRevise Combine two or moreRemix Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  • Online Learning/MOOCs Analog or Digital Tethered or Mobile Concealing or Sharing Isolated or Connected Generic or Personal Consuming or Creating Closed or Open
  • Connecting Its hard to connect to something if you don't have access to it
  • Personalizing Its hard to personalize something if you don't have permission to modify it
  • Creating and Sharing Its hard to make and share things when youre constantly worried about being sued
  • When You Can Assume Open These problems disappear
  • OER-based Learning Analog or Digital Tethered or Mobile Concealing or Sharing Isolated or Connected Generic or Personal Consuming or Creating Closed or Open
  • Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  • Disposable Assignments Students hate doing them You hate grading them Huge waste of time and energy
  • Assignments that Contribute Students see value in doing them You see value in grading them Contribute to the greater good
  • Open Pedagogy What can we do differently when all content is open?
  • Whats Effective? Hatties Visible Learning
  • Scope of the Research Over 800 meta-analyses Over 50,000 studies Over 80,000,000 learners
  • Effect Size Measure of magnitude of impact Independent of sample size Popular for meta-analyses
  • Organizing and Transforming (0.85) Overt or covert rearrangement of instructional materials to improve learning. (e.g., making an outline before writing a paper).... The types of strategies included in this category (such as summarizing and paraphrasing) promote a more active approach to learning tasks. Pp. 190-191
  • Reciprocal Teaching (0.74) The emphasis is on teachers enabling their students to learn and use cognitive strategies such as summarizing, questioning, clarifying, and predicting.... The effects were highest when there was explicit teaching of cognitive strategies before beginning reciprocal teaching. P. 204
  • Feedback (0.73) The major discriminator is whether feedback is clearly directed to the various levels of task, process, or regulation, and not directed to the level of self.
  • Teacher Student Relationships (0.72) Developing relationships requires skills by the teacher such as the skills of listening, empathy, caring, and having positive regard for others.... Teachers should learn to facilitate students development by demonstrating that they care for the learning of each student as a person and empathizing with students. Pp. 118-119
  • Worked Examples (0.57) Worked examples reduce the cognitive load for students such that they concentrate on the processes that lead to the correct answer and not just providing an answer. P. 172
  • Formative Evaluation of Teaching (.9) When teachers were required to use data and evidence-based models, effect sizes were higher than when data were evaluated by teacher judgment. In addition, when the data was graft, effect sizes were higher than when data were simply recorded. P. 181
  • 1. OER as Worked Example Help students understand the design of the OER youve assigned
  • 2. Remix OER Assign students to organize and transform OER to more teach effectively
  • 3. Provide Feedback on Remixes Offer multiple types of feedback on student remixes and require revisions
  • 4. Reciprocal Teaching Have students teach each other using their remixes
  • 5. Continuous Improvement At end of term, engage in data-based formative evaluation of the course. Incorporate student work in new version as appropriate.
  • Simple Gifts 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'tis the gift to be free 'Tis the gift to come down where we ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained, To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, Till by turning, turning we come 'round right.
  • Each and Every Interaction Recorded, stored, and analyzed in order to get better
  • If Only We Could Get Data! We could do analyses (aka research) too!
  • Canvas
  • Even the Grocer! Almost every industry (1) gathers and (2) uses data more effectively than we do
  • What Kind of Data? Assessment data Construct-relevant behavioral data
  • Assessment Data Difficulty estimates Discrimination estimates Per standard expertise estimates (Not just grades)
  • Behavioral Data When they logged in, read, and worked How long they logged in, read, and worked Pathway information Social network analysis &c.
  • Analytics Tell you what to change But dont give you permission to make changes
  • OER Give you permission to make changes But dont tell you what to change
  • OER + Analytics Continuous improvement
  • Instructional Design & Learning Sciences Tell you how to change it
  • Faculty Feedback I wish I had this for every class I teach, for every module! The feedback and recommendations are positive, specific and are changes that I can implement quickly with minimal effort on my part.
  • Coda
  • OER can dramatically improve a range of educational outcomes OER can drastically reduce the cost of education
  • Were not on the edge of this capability. Were doing it now.
  • More Discussion #openls @opencontent [email protected]