Open Badges

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Give them a gold star: exploring the potential of open badges

Craig BrownVicki DaleSarah HoneychurchJohn MaguireLearning Technology UnitOverview of sessionIntroductionMotivation of learners (Vicki Dale)Technical considerations (Craig Brown and John Maguire)Examples (Sarah Honeychurch)Group activity: designing badges (all participants)FeedbackMotivation of learners: Vicki DaleWhat motivates people to learn?Types of motivationBroad typesIntrinsicExtrinsicSocialSubtle variations (Ryan & Decis Self-Determination Theory)Implications for open badges

4What motivates learners to engage in CPD?

Dale, V. H. M., S. E. Pierce and S. A. May (2010). "The importance of cultivating a preference for complexity in veterinarians for effective lifelong learning." Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 37(2): 165-171.

Response to external incentives(rewards or punishment)Love of learningInner driveParticipation in social activities by activity-oriented learnersSurvey done of veterinary surgeons in the UK, included Likert scale items derived from various learning inventories and other published studies. PCA confirmed that vets were motivated primarily for intrinsic reasons, then social reasons and somewhat motivated by extrinsic reasons.5Learning explained by environmental (external) influences on observed behaviour (learned associations)Summary video: www.youtube.com/watch?v=SUwCgFSb6NkExtrinsic motivation associated with behaviourism very simplistic way of looking at learningB. F. Skinnersoperant conditioningIvan Pavlovs classical conditioningJohn B. WatsonStimulus-response model

Edward L. ThorndikeLaw of effect"One of Pavlov's dogs" by Rklawton - English Wikipedia, see below. Licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 via Wikimedia Commons - http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:One_of_Pavlov%27s_dogs.jpg#mediaviewer/File:One_of_Pavlov%27s_dogs.jpg

Skinners first teaching machine by Silly rabbit, CC-BY-3.0 via Wikimedia Commons http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2d/Skinner_teaching_machine_08.jpg

By Christine Matthews [CC-BY-SA-2.0, via Wikimedia Commons, http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File%3ARock_Dove_(Feral_Pigeon)_(Columba_livia)_-_geograph.org.uk_-_1309587.jpg However, extrinsic motivation (rewards & punishments) most associated with behaviourism.This is an objectivist epistemology where the teacher transmits knowledge to the student who is a passive recipient, a teacher-centred model of education.Skinner- behaviour that is positively reinforced will occur. Did experiments with pigeons tapping on a device for food.Principles of contiguity (how close in time two events must be in order to be associated) and reinforcement (ways of increasing the likelihood of a behaviour being repeated) are critical.Locus of control is external (in environment).6

However Dale, V. H. M., S. E. Pierce and S. A. May (2010). "The importance of cultivating a preference for complexity in veterinarians for effective lifelong learning." Journal of Veterinary Medical Education 37(2): 165-171.

Preference for complexity = deep approach, high need for cognition, construction & use of knowledgePreference for simplicity= surface approach, low need for cognition, intake of knowledgePreference for complexity positively correlated with intrinsic AND extrinsic AND social motivation Interestingly, all forms of motivation were associated with a preference for complexity that would be associated with an internal locus of control and a degree of autonomy and self-directedness.7

Ryan, R. M. and E. L. Deci (2000). "Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being." American Psychologist 55(1): 68.

Self-determination theory (Ryan and Deci 2000) provides insight into subtle variations of extrinsic motivationWhere do open badges fit into this model of motivation?BehaviouristConstructivist?With appropriate scaffolding and support by teacher, can students move towards being self-directed, self-actualisation?Zone of proximal development (Vygotsky)8Motivation implications for open badgesIntrinsicExtrinsicAmotivationSocialParticipation / attendance Nice to have, easy to get (Curran 2014)Competency based badgeDigital credentialing (Jovanovic & Devedzic 2014)Legitimises informal learning experiences (Goligoski 2012)Aids transparency to learner achievements (Curran 2014)Promotes self-reflection & planning (Jovanovic & Devedzic 2014)GamificationFun element, fostering collaboration & competition (Glover 2013, Seliskar 2014)

On digital credentialing, Goligoski 2012 notes that OBs legitimise informal learning experiencesHowever one thing to be wary of is motivation displacement (J&D 2014 citing Deterding 2013) giving an extrinsic reward may displace learners intrinsic motivation.Periodic expiry also forces regular retraining for important skills and recertification (Glover & Latif 2013)9Open Badges TechnicalCraig Brown & John Maguire

Storing your badgesWhat is the Mozilla backpack?How do I add badges to my backpack?How do I display my badges?MOZILLA BACKPACK11Storing your badgesA repository for collecting and displaying badges from a variety of source

The Open Badges backpack is an interface where the earner can import badges, delete badges, set privacy controls, create and publish groups of badges.WHAT IS THE MOZILLA BACKPACK?In order to save and display badges users need an area to store them digitally. This is usually the Mozilla backpack,

as the use of badges increase there are ways issuers can setup backpack areas. This would require a long term commitment by the issuer.12Storing your badgesYou need to add any awarded badges issued they will not appear automatically once you have earned them.

Earning a badge.ADDING BADGESIn order to save and display badges users need an area to store them digitally. This is usually the Mozilla backpack,

as the use of badges increase there are ways issuers can setup backpack areas. This would require a long term commitment by the issuer.13Storing your badgesDISPLAYING BADGESIn order to save and display badges users need an area to store them digitally. This is usually the Mozilla backpack,

as the use of badges increase there are ways issuers can setup backpack areas. This would require a long term commitment by the issuer.14Issuing platformAnatomy of a badgeISSUING BADGES

Creating badges15

Creating badgesIn order to save and display badges users need an area to store them digitally. This is usually the Mozilla backpack,

as the use of badges increase there are ways issuers can setup backpack areas. This would require a long term commitment by the issuer.16Creating badgesISSUING PLATFORMS3rd-party badge issuerData stored on someone elses server, start issuing now

Use a pluginAdd to an existing product (Moodle, Wordpress, etc.)

Build your own bespoke solutionHire a developer, hold your own data

In order to save and display badges users need an area to store them digitally. This is usually the Mozilla backpack,

as the use of badges increase there are ways issuers can setup backpack areas. This would require a long term commitment by the issuer.17Creating badgesISSUING IN MOODLERequires enabling activity completionIssued manually or linked to activities

No input area for criteriaCriteria selectable only from activities or manual issue

EvidenceNo area for link to evidenceIn order to save and display badges users need an area to store them digitally. This is usually the Mozilla backpack,

as the use of badges increase there are ways issuers can setup backpack areas. This would require a long term commitment by the issuer.18Creating badgesISSUING IN MOODLE

In order to save and display badges users need an area to store them digitally. This is usually the Mozilla backpack,

as the use of badges increase there are ways issuers can setup backpack areas. This would require a long term commitment by the issuer.19Creating badgesISSUING IN MOODLE

In order to save and display badges users need an area to store them digitally. This is usually the Mozilla backpack,

as the use of badges increase there are ways issuers can setup backpack areas. This would require a long term commitment by the issuer.20Creating badgesISSUING IN CREDLYRequire enabling activity completionIssued manually or linked to activities

No input area for criteriaCriteria selectable only from activities or manual issue

EvidenceHire No area or link to evidence, any information in

www.credly.comIn order to save and display badges users need an area to store them digitally. This is usually the Mozilla backpack,

as the use of badges increase there are ways issuers can setup backpack areas. This would require a long term commitment by the issuer.21Examples: Sarah HoneychurchWeb design skills

Lifelong learning

Skills badges

ocTEL: Official MOOC badges

#Rhizo14: badges made by community

https://www.openbadges.me/ OLDS-MOOC: Official MOOC badges

Online Masters Course: Secret badges

??Group activity: design a badgeThe worksheet on the tables is taken from: http://www.jiscrsc.ac.uk/media/421718/jiscopenbadgesdesigntoolkit-print_1.pdf

Feedbackhttp://learn.gla.ac.uk/yacrs/index.phpSession 43Further reading and informationJisc Open Badge Design Toolkit: http://www.jiscrsc.ac.uk/media/421718/jiscopenbadgesdesigntoolkit-print_1.pdf Curran, T. (2014). "How open badges can promote student motivation." Retrieved 26 November, 2014, from http://tedcurran.net/2014/06/06/open-badges-motivation/. Glover, I. (2013). Play as you learn: gamification as a technique for motivating learners. EdM