Nuoc va ve_sinh_nong thon

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<ul><li> 1. Mc tiu bi hc Ths. Trn Tuyt Hnh B mn SKMT Sau khi hc xong bi ny, hc vin c kh nng: Nu v m t c cc ngun nc khc nhau trong NC V t nhin v vai tr ca nc i vi con ngi Trnh by c cc ngun nhim nc V SINH M t c mt s bnh lin quan ti nc v cc gii php d phng NC Trnh by c thc trng cung cp nc thnh th v nng thn Vit Nam Lit k v m t c mt s phng php x l nc 1. Cc ngun nc trong thin nhin 1. Cc ngun nc trong thin nhin (tip) Anh/ch hy lit k cc ngun nc khc nhau trong thin nhin. Theo anh/ch, nc mt ngt chim khong bao nhiu phn trm lng nc trn tri t? Nc mt ngt= 0,03 x 0,003 = 0,009% 1 </li> <li> 2. 1.1. Chu trnh nc trong thin nhin http://ga.water.usgs.gov/edu /watercyclevietnamese.html Anh/ch hy m t tm tt chu trnh nc trong thin nhin (vng tun hon nc). 1.1. Chu trnh nc trong thin nhin (tip) 1.2. c im mt s ngun nc n ung, sinh hot Ngun: http://ww2010.atmos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/hyd/smry.rxml Nc ngm Nc mt ngt (sng, sui, ao, h, mng) Nc ma 2 </li> <li> 3. 1.2.1. Nc ngm 1.2.1. Nc ngm (tip) Anh/ch hy nu mt s c im chnh ca Cht lng nc tt nhng thay i, lin quan mt thit nc ngm? vi nc mt v cc ngun nhim trn mt t. Nm su trong lng t, chim 30,1% lng nc ngt trn tri t Lu lng cn ph thuc theo ma. Ngun nc ngm ti cc khu vc c th khai Nc ngm su c cht lng n nh, su t 20 150m thc c l 4 triu km3 so vi mt t, kh khai thc Khng d dng khai thc v s dng Nc ngm su thng c hm lng mui khong cao Nc ngm nng cch mt t t 5 10 m Nc ngm mt s vng ti Vit Nam c hm lng st cao t 1 20 mg/l. Mangan: nhiu ni &gt; 0,5mg/l. Asen: mt s ni pht hin &gt; 0,01 mg/l - 0,05 mg/l. 1.2.2. Nc sng h (nc mt ngt) 1.2.2. Nc sng h (tip) u im D dng s dng v khai thc, thun li cho phc v cho mi Theo anh/ch, so vi nc ngm th nc mt ngt hot ng hng ngy c nhng u v nhc im g? Nhc im Chim t l kh nh, 0,3% lng nc ngt trn tri t, vi lu lng chng 218.000 km3 nc phn phi khng ng u B nhim bi nhiu ngun khc nhau: nhim vt l, ha hc, vi sinh vt, nhim mn, hm lng cn cao Kho st 3 min: khng c sng no t tiu chun nc mt loi A. 94- 100% mu nc b nhim VSV 3 </li> <li> 4. 1.2.2. Nc sng h (tip) 1.2.3. Nc ma Mt sng Vit Nam Bn cht l sch, b nhim bn do khng kh b nhim Trung bnh trn ton quc: 0,6km/km2 Ln nht: 4km/km2 (Chu th sng Hng v sng Thi bnh, Nhc im: khng dng quanh nm, ph thuc vo sng Cu long) tng vng v tng ma Nh nht: 0,3 km/km2: Mc Chu, Bc v Trung Ty Nguyn, Ninh Thun, Bnh Thun) Tng lu lng dng chy: 880km3/nm. Khong 63% lng nc do ngoi lnh th chy vo &gt;60% ngun nc sng BSCL (20% dn s c nc, 10% khi lng hot ng sn xut kinh doanh, dch v) S liu so snh ti nguyn nc ca mt s quc gia ca Vin Ti nguyn Th gii WRI ( 2002-2004) Tm tt phn 1. QUC GIA Lng nc Nc ngt chim khong 3% lng nc trn tri t (m3/ngi/nm) Nc mt ngt ch chim 0,3% lng nc ngt trn tri t Ti nguyn nc ngt ti to c ca Vit Nam 11.189 v b nhim bi nhiu ngun khc nhau Phn ln nc ngt trn tri t dng bng (68,7%) hoc Ti nguyn nc ngt ti to c ca Lo 68.318 nc ngm (30,1%) nn kh khai thc Ti nguyn nc ngt ti to c ca Campuchia 30.561 Lng nc mt t ngoi lnh th chy vo Vit Nam chim khong 63% tng lng nc ca cc h thng sng ngi Ti nguyn nc ngt ti to c ca Trung Quc 2.185 V lu lng, Vit Nam l quc gia giu nc vi ti nguyn nc ngt ti to c tnh trn u ngi l 11.189 Ti nguyn nc ngt ti to c ca Hn Quc 1.471 m3/ngi/nm. Thc t, ang ng trc nguy c thiu nc Ti nguyn nc ngt ti to c ca cc quc gia 50 - 500 trm trng ngho nc Ti nguyn nc ngt ti to c trn ton tri t 6.538 4 </li> <li> 5. 2. Vai tr ca nc i vi con ngi 2.1 Vai tr ca nc i vi con ngi Anh/ch hy lit k mt s vai tr ca nc i vi con ngi? Sinh hot: n ung, tm git v dng trong nh v sinh. Cng nghip: sn xut giy, xng du, ho cht v luyn kim... X l rc thi: vn chuyn phn v nc tiu t cc h x t hoi ti nh my x l. Vui chi gii tr: bi thuyn, lt vn, bi li v.v. Nng nghip, chn nui, nui trng thy sn, Giao thng vn ti, thu in v.v. 2.2 Vai tr ca nc i vi c th 2.2 Vai tr ca nc i vi c th (tip) Khong 65 -70% trng lng c th l nc Thay i 1-2% lng nc trong c th: C TH nh hng ti sc kho Kht Thc phm cn thit Mt nc 5%: c th hn m NC Vi yu t cn thit Mt nc 10 15%: c th t vong Mi ngi cn 2 lt nc/ngy (n ung) Cht c hi, vi khun gy bnh (nu nc b nhim) V sinh c nhn v cng cng 5 </li> <li> 6. 2.3. Nhu cu v nc 2.3. Nhu cu v nc (tip) Nhu cu v nc ton cu t 1900 n 2000 Sinh hot Tng Cng nghip Phn Nng nghip trm tng Nng nghip Km3 nhu /nm cu Cng nghip Sinh hot Thu nhp thp Thu nhp trung bnh Thu nhp cao Nm Ngun: Cunningham/Saigo 1999 Mc thu nhp ca cc quc gia 2.3. Nhu cu v nc (tip) Nguyn nhn: Gia tng dn s th gii Nhu cu v nc ca Vit Nam (triu m3/nm) Nm Nc sinh Nc sinh hot Tng cng (tt hot th nng thn c cc nhu cu v nc) 1990 897 445 64.846 2000 1.264 613 92.115 2010 1.498 1.590 121.521 6 </li> <li> 7. 3. nhim nc 3.1. Khi nim v nhim nc (tip) 3.1. Khi nim v nhim nc Thay i tnh cht cm quan ca nc, lm nc c mu, mi, v khng bnh thng nhim nc l s bin i ni chung do con ngi vi cht lng nc, lm nhim bn nc v gy nguy him Thay i thnh phn ha hc ca nc, lm tng hm cho con ngi, cho cng nghip, nng nghip, nui trng lng cht hu c, mui khong, cc cht c hi thu sn, ngh ngi, gii tr, cho ng vt nui v cc loi Thay i h sinh vt trong nc, xut hin cc loi vi hoang d Hin chng Chu u v Nc khun v virus gy bnh nhim mi trng l s bin i ca cc thnh phn mi trng khng ph hp vi tiu chun mi trng, gy nh hng xu n con ngi, sinh vt Lut BVMT VN 2005 3.2. Ngun nhim nc nhim asen trong ngun nc Theo anh/ch, nc c th b nhim bi nhng ngun Hm lng Asen trong ngun nc ngm mt s ni vt no? qu TCCP, c ni cao gp hng chc ln nhim nc c ngun gc t nhin do: Ti H Nam: 1819/1928 (94,3%) ging khoan c asen &gt; Ma, tuyt tan, TCCP ca Vit Nam v quc t ( mc cho php ca VN v a vo mi trng nc cht thi bn, cc sinh vt v quc t. vi sinh vt c hi k c xc cht ca chng. 10 triu ngi Vit Nam c th c nguy c mc bnh v phi nhim vi asen trong nc ngm 7 </li> <li> 8. Nhim c asen 3.2. Ngun nhim nc (tip) Tip xc vi Asen vi hm lng &gt; 50 ppb (&gt;50mg/m3)trong thi gian di, hay 500 ppb trong thi Ngun gc nhn to: gian ngn gy tnh trng nhim c Asen. Cht thi sinh hot, Bnh l do nhim c Asen: sng ha, ung th da, Cht thi cng nghip ung th ni tng, v mt s bnh tim mch. C th t Cht thi nng nghip, chn nui, thy hi sn vong nu nhim hm lng cao trong thi gian ngn. Cht thi t hot ng giao thng, du lch, thng mi.. Dng t -China Citarum - Indo Nhiu Lc- Th Ngh 3.2.1 Cht thi sinh hot 3.2.1 Cht thi sinh hot (tip) Nc thi sinh hot Rc thi sinh hot Nc dng tm, ra, git qun o Phn ln cht thi sinh hot nc ta khng c tiu hu Nc dng ch bin thc n mt cch an ton. Nc lau c nh ca Hnh thc tiu hu cht thi ph bin vn l bi rc l Nc tiu, nc t cc h x t hoi thin. Phn ngi v gia sc Trong s 91 im tiu hu cht thi trong c nc, ch c 17 im c nh gi l hp v sinh. H Ni c tng lng nc thi khong hn 500.000 m3/ngy m, trong lng nc thi sinh hot khong 400.000 m3, Cc bi rc chn lp c vn hnh khng ng k thut v nc thi cng nghip 85.000 - 90.000 m3 bi rc l thin gy nhim ngun nc Thnh ph H Ch Minh c tng lng nc thi sinh hot khong 600.000 m3/ngy m, phn ln...</li></ul>