Open Educational Resources: A New Way Forward
Muddy Waters:Navigating the landscape of scholarly publishingMichelle Reed, @LibrariansReedOpen Education Librarian | UTA Libraries | 1.25.17
This presentation is licensed under an Attribution 4.0 International license (CC-BY): https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Research provides the foundation of modern society. Research leads to breakthroughs, and communicating the results of research is what allows us to turn breakthroughs into better livesto provide new treatments for disease, to implement solutions for challenges like global warming, and to build entire industries around what were once just ideas.
However, our current system for communicating research is crippled by a centuries old model that hasnt been updated to take advantage of 21st century technologySource: the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition (SPARC)
Complete This SentenceI am/am not likely to make my future work open because
Images used with permission from Freeimages contributors: ba1969 (idea), svilen001 (coins 5), Lockheed (magnifying glass), typofi (Metal type from letterpress 4), mmagallan (Present 3), code1name (eye), L-O-L-A (blue eye and boy green eye), digital a (OK), Staszkinse (library). http://www.freeimages.com/. Internet Splat Map courtesy of Steve Jurvetson: https://flic.kr/p/5Gky.
Scholarly Publishing Process:
Scholar has an idea, applies for/receives grant money to support research, conducts research, writes the research paper, submits the paper to a publisher, editor considers the paper, peer reviewers consider the paper, editor accepts the paper, paper is published, and readers access the paper (or not). Lots of time and money are invested in this process.
Inputs: public money/time/laborAccess Barriers: Price and Permission (contingent on Internet access, etc.)
About ~85% of scholarship is locked behind paywalls or subscription memberships.
What is opyright?
Four facts about copyright. 6
The U.S. Constitution
The Congress shall have the powerto promote the progress of science and useful arts, by securing for limited times to authors and inventors exclusive Right to their respective writings and discoveries.
Article 1, Section 8
Fact 1: Copyright is a legal right granted by the US Constitution. It was intended as a limited-term monopoly to incentivize creation and innovation.
Copyright (Section 106)
Copyright protects original works of authorship that are fixed in a tangible form of expression: literary worksmusical worksdramatic workspantomimes & choreographic workspictorial, graphic, & sculptural worksmotion pictures & other audiovisual workssound recordingsarchitectural works
Fact 2: Copyright is automatic when a work is fixed in a tangible form.
These categories should be viewed broadly. For example, computer programs and most compilations may be registered as literary works; maps and architectural plans may be registered as pictorial, graphic, and sculptural works.
Some things may not be protected by copyright: ideas, symbols, ingredients and processes (recipes), ideas, phrases, names, titles, and slogans. However, other types of IP may apply (e.g., trademark, patent, or trade secret). Also, government documents are in the public domain.
Copyright happens automatically and without any further action on your part when you fix an idea in a tangible form. Example: lyrics on a bar napkin. Making the copyright ownership and status of work easily visible is a good idea but not legally required. Registration is a procedural necessity in order to litagate a copyright claim but this can be done at any point and costs money. It would indicate to the court that you were aware of your ownership rights and intended to protect them. But again, not necessary to establish copyright; the act of expression brought the copyright into existence.
Copyright is a bundle of rights
Rights are held by the OWNER of the work (not necessarily the creator/author). Owners may:Reproduce - Make copies of their works publicly or privately.Adapt - Prepare additional works derived from their copyrighted work, (aka, derivative works).Distribute - Disseminate copies of their works, to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, lending. Perform - Perform their work publicly (at location open to the public or to persons other than close family and social acquaintances).Display - Display their work publicly (applies to all works except sound recordings and architectural works).
Fact 3: Copyright is a bundle of rights that can be debundled.
Rights may be transferred in whole or licensed collectively or individually. Exclusive rights must be transferred in writing.
Length/Term of Copyright
Life of author plus 70 yearsJoint work 70 years after last surviving authors deathWorks made for hire 95 years from year of first publication or 120 years from year of creation, whichever expires firstWorks published before 1923 are in the public domainCopyright slider to determine whether the work is in the public domain - http://librarycopyright.net/resources/digitalslider/
Fact 4: Copyright lasts a really long time-- continues beyond creators death.
Original Copyright Term: 1790 14 yrs. + 14 renewal (28)
Revisions:1831 28 yrs. + 14 renewal (42)1909 28 yrs. + 28 renewal (56)1976 life of author + 50 yrs. (fair use formalized, registration not required)1998 life of author + 70 yrs.
The Disney influence: Steamboat Willie (1928) - set to expire in 1984 - 1976 changes set new expiration at 75 years (2003) - 1998 changes set new expiration at 95 years (2023)10
Alternatives to all rights reserved - http://creativecommons.org/about
The Spectrum of Open
Open access (OA) literature is digital, online, free of charge, and free of most copyright and licensing restrictions. Peter Suber
Source for graphic: https://www.plos.org/how-open-is-it
Achieving Open AccessGold OA: Open Access JournalsGreen OA: Self-ArchivingHybrid OA: Open Article in Toll-Access Journal
Openness is gaining steam for a variety of reasons. This is in part due to mandates. Some government agencies, such as NIH, require that federally funded research be made available to the public. There are also institutional mandates. For example, KU was the first US public university to adopt a faculty-initiated open access policy: http://policy.ku.edu/governance/open-access-policy. Harvard, Stanford, and MIT have similar policies.
In addition, scholars are beginning to recognize the value in making their work open: greater control over the work = greater dissemination/readership of research = increase in citations = greater impact = more opportunities for further analysis.
Note: Hybrid open access also exists, in which an author pays for open access in an otherwise closed journal. Because the publisher gets paid twice (by the author and by subscriptions), this option is not recommended.
Known as gold open access.
Peer-reviewedAuthors retain copyrightNo fee for readers (or libraries)Revenues are generated from sources other than subscriptionsSubsidized journals (e.g., Biodiversity Informatics) - financed by an academic institution, learned society or a government information centerAuthor-paid journals (e.g., PLoS journals) - financed by payment of article processing charges by submitting authors
UTA has an open access publishing fund that supports authors seeking publication in journals that operate on article processing charges: http://libguides.uta.edu/OApublishing/home
DOAJ is a good resource for identifying OA journals: http://doaj.org/
Known as green open access.
Authors are self-archiving their individual work in open access repositories. In order to do this, authors must retain portions of their copyright rather than transfer it to publishers.
There are different types of repositories: discipline-based (e.g., PubMed Central, SSRN, ArXive) and institutional (e.g., UTA ResearchCommons).
What You Should DoKnow your rightsKnow publishers copyright policy prior to submittingRead and maintain your publication agreementsRegister with ORCID
For publisher copyright policies: http://www.sherpa.ac.uk/romeo/index.phpDistinguish yourself with unique ID: https://orcid.org/
Lets PracticeWords to Watch:
Five Major ConsiderationsLikelihood of Manuscript AcceptanceJournal ReputationJournal Visibility and Potential Article ImpactLikelihood of Timely PublicationPhilosophical and Ethical Issues
From class reading: Selecting an Appropriate Publication Outlet: A Comprehensive Model of Journal Selection Criteria for Researchers in a Broad Range of Academic Disciplines
Additional ConsiderationsWhere you are and where you want to be How metrics are valued in your field (Hint: Theres more to measuring success than impact factor)Flexible authoring tools make it easier to write with multiple journals in mindNumerous studies (and common sense) demonstrate connection between open publishing and increased citations
Impact factor vs. h-index vs. altmetrics vs. so much more learn at http://acrl.libgu