Monarchy In England

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PreviewMain Idea / Reading Focus

The Tudors and Parliament

The Stuarts and Parliament

The English Civil War

The Monarchy Returns

Monarchy in England

Reading FocusHow did the Tudors work with Parliament?

What led the first two Stuart kings to clash with Parliament?

What were the causes and results of the English Civil War?

What happened when monarchy returned to England?

Main IdeaIn contrast to the absolute monarchies of Spain and France, the English monarchy was limited by Parliament; following a civil war, Parliament became even more powerful. Monarchy in England

Henry VIII created Protestant Church in England to divorce first wife

Had Parliament pass laws ending power of pope in England

In 1534 Act of Supremacy named king as head of Church of England

Henry and ParliamentTwo prominent members of Tudor dynasty, Henry VIII and daughter Elizabeth I, ruled when absolutism common on European continent

In England, Parliament placed curbs on absolute monarchy

Both father, daughter had to learn to work with Parliament to fulfill goals

Henry and ElizabethThe Tudors and Parliament

TensionTension developed between Parliament, queen

Parliament pressured her to marry so she would have heir to throne

Elizabeth refused, knowing marriage would limit her freedom

Still managed to talk Parliament into approving funds she needed

Edward, Mary, ElizabethAfter Henrys death and short reign of son Edward, Mary I became queen

Often called Bloody Mary, briefly made England Catholic again

1558, Mary died; Elizabeth crowned queen

Returned England to Anglican Church with Parliaments help

Elizabeth in ChargeMajor reason for Elizabeths good relationship with Parliament, her willingness to let members speak minds without fear of punishment Close ties shown in fact that she called Parliament into session 10 times in 45-year reign

Elizabeth clearly in charge, but had difficulty keeping subjects from questioning her actions

Earl of Essex rebelled against authority

Asked publicly, Cannot princes err? Cannot subjects receive wrong? Is an earthly power or authority infinite?

Essex tried, executed as a traitor

Not the last to question Elizabeths authority


What did Henry VIII and Elizabeth I work with Parliament to do?

Answer(s): to pass laws to help the monarch achieve desired results

The Tudors success with Parliament not repeated

Relative of the Scotland Tudors succeeded Elizabeth

James I, first of Stuart dynasty to rule in England

View of absolute monarchy caused conflict with Parliament

Previous wars, own spending left him low on funds

James I

From Scotland, considered outsider

James rarely got all money he wanted from Parliament

Puritans wanted reform of Church of England

Clashes with ParliamentSeen as threat to Jamess power; church leadership supported him

Refused to pass Puritans requests for reform

Did agree to publication of King James Bible

Puritan ReformThe Stuarts and Parliament

When James I died in 1625, his younger son was crowned king as Charles I. Popular at first, but married Catholic princess

Involved England in military adventures overseas

1628, summoned Parliament to request money

Parliament refused until Charles signed Petition of Right

Petition of Right a direct challenge to absolute monarchy

Issues of MoneyPlaced limits on kings power

Could not levy taxes without Parliamentary approval

Parliament later refused to give Charles money again

He taxed English people on own, forced bankers to lend him money

Parliament was furious

Charles dismissed Parliament

1629, decided to rule without consulting Parliament again

Petition of Right

Charles I Defies Parliament

Find the Main Idea

Why did the Stuarts have trouble with Parliament?

Answer(s): Both wanted to rule as absolute monarchs.

Conflict ContinuedConflict continued between king who believed in absolute monarchy, Parliament that saw itself independent

Conflict led to war, kings death

Limited Kings PowersHaving been ignored 11 years, Parliament took opportunity to further limit kings powers

Demanded Parliament be called at least every three years

Parliament Reconvened1640, Charles I finally reconvened Parliament to ask for more money

Long Parliament did not disband for several years

Grudging AcceptanceParliament also ruled king could no longer dismiss Parliament

Charles accepted new rules; but awaited right time to overturn

The English Civil War

StrategyCharles moment came when radical Puritan group in Parliament moved to abolish appointment of bishops in Anglican Church

King, whose power connected to power of church, was outraged

Civil War BeginsSome members of Parliament decided to rise up against king

Charles I called for support of English people

1642, English Civil War began

Charles Tries Power GrabCharles decided to arrest Puritan leaders for treason

Led troops into House of Commons, but men had already escaped

Charles had tipped hand on intentions to take back power

War with Parliament

Without Parliaments funding, king relied on contributions to pay army

Wealthy nobles called Royalists for allegiance to Charles

Parliament could back its army by voting for funding

Supporters of Parliament called Roundheads for short, bowl-shaped haircuts

Roundheads included Puritans, merchants, some from upper classes

Parliament member Oliver Cromwell led Roundhead forces

Rose to leadership as army general

1644, led victory in which 4,000 of kings soldiers died

Cromwell soon became commander of Parliaments army

Roundhead ForcesRoyalist army outmatched by Cromwells troops

1646, king surrendered

Cromwell dismissed members of Parliament who disagreed with him

Those left made up what was called the Rump Parliament

King SurrendersRoyalists and Roundheads

Trial and ExecutionEventually Rump Parliament charged king with treason, put him on trial During trial, Charles defended self with great eloquence, refused to even recognize Parliaments authority to try him

In the end, Charles sentenced to death for treason

January 30, 1649, publicly beheaded in front of own palace

To some he was martyr; to others tyrant who got what he deserved

CommonwealthEnglands government changed completely for the next 11 years

House of Commons abolished House of Lords, outlawed monarchy

Became commonwealth, government based on common good of all people

Foreign IssuesCromwell also had to deal with foreign issues

Led military expeditions to Scotland, Ireland

Economic policies led to war with Dutch over trade; also warred on Spain

Lord Protector1653, Cromwell given title Lord Protector of England, Scotland, Ireland

Skilled leader, but demanded complete obedience

Clamped down on social life, closed theaters, limited other entertainment

England under Cromwell

In Leviathan, Hobbes described humans as being naturally selfish, fearful

Hobbes argued that people needed all-powerful monarch to tell them how to live

Views sparked controversy when England trying to find balance in government

LeviathanCromwell, the kings death, war troubled many English people

One was Thomas Hobbes, Royalist who fled to France during Cromwells rule

Hobbes wrote classic work of political science, Leviathan

Questions of RuleA Defender of Absolutism

Identify Cause and Effect

What were some effects of the English Civil War?

Answer(s): temporarily ended monarchy and House of Lords, restricted English social life in certain ways

Pepys: Great joy all yesterday at London, and at night more bonfires that ever, and ringing of bellsevery body seems to be very joyfull in the businessHobbess ideas reflected the fact that many people were unhappy under Cromwell, especially when he dismissed Parliament to rule alonelike a king. Attitudes were changing so much that a return to monarchy became possible.1658, Cromwell died; son took place; Richard Cromwell lacked fathers leadership abilities

His government collapsed

Eventually Parliament reconvened, voted to bring back monarchyevent known as the Restoration

The RestorationThe Monarchy ReturnsSpring 1660, Parliament invited son of Charles I to be new king

Parliament laid out certain conditions which Charles accepted

Was crowned as Charles II

People shouted their good wishes

The New King

Positive and Negative Charles reopened theaters, flowering of English drama resulted

Habeas Corpus Act passed, guaranteeing someone accused of a crime had right to appear in court to determine if should be held, released

1665, bubonic plague returned; following year Great Fire of London

After fire, Charles supported public construction projects

The Reign of Charles IICharles had to address many issuesconflict with Dutch continued; religious tensions remained; role of Parliament still being developed

Charles supported religious toleration for Catholics, but Parliament insisted on laws to strengthen the Church of England

Restoration years, mixture of positive, negative events

Later in Charless reign the question of who would succeed him remained. His brother James was next in line, but he was a Catholic.James married to Catholic princess, whose Catholic son would outrank Jamess Protestant daughters from first marriage

1685, Charles died, James crowned king

Many wondered if another destructive war would follow

James not popular; believed in right to rule as absolute monarch

English did not tolerate that belief

Not Popular1688, group of nobles invited Jamess daughter Mary, husband William to become king, queen

William and Mary both Protestants, lived in Netherlands

James fled to France

Parliament gave throne to William III, Mary II as joint rulers; transfer became known as the Glorious Revolution

Glorious Revolution

James II

Bill of Rights central to Englands growth as Constitutional Monarchy, term for monarchy limited by law

Documents approval came after decades of dramatic changes in English government

England had rejected concept of absolute monarch who ruled by divine right, for monarchy ruled by law

Constitutional MonarchyWith Glorious Revolution, Parliament had essentially crowned new king, queen

More important, a document William and Mary had to sign before taking thronethe English Bill of Rights

Document prevented monarch from levying taxes without consent of Parliament, among other provisions

U.S. Bill of Rights based on this document

Bill of RightsChanges in Government


What happened during the Glorious Revolution?

Answer(s): William and Mary were given the English throne by Parliament.

The Monarchs of EuropeSection 3