ants are a wide family in the order Hymenoptera ants have different types depend on their morphology and nutrietion ..etc
2. Miscellaneous ants are different kinds of antswhich comprise
a single family ,the Formicidaewithin the order hymenoptera. 3.
Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Arhtropoda Class: Insecta Order:
Hymenoptera Suborder: Apocrita Super family: Vespoidea Family:
Formicidae Subfamily:Myrmicinae Tribe: Solenopsidinae Genus:
Solenopsis Species: S.invicta 4. The name came from the Greek words
humen and pteron,meaning membrane and wing.Holometabolous insects.
They have egg, larval, pupal, and adult stages. They are one of the
five megadiverse insect ordersthey are cosmopolitan ,but most
species occure in tropics they include phytophagous,parasitoid, and
predatory taxa, both solitary and highly social species. They range
in size from large to very tiny ones. They have to pair of
membraneous wings.fore wings are largerthan hind wings. The
ovipositor is used not only for laying eggs, it is also used topass
venom and/or other secretions to the place of oviposition. all have
a haplodiploid sex determination system. Prothorax is reduced in
size forming a narrow band betweenthe head and mesothorax. 5. all
ants are eusocial,except a few species which secondarily lost
thierworker caste. Ants have diverse systems of communication, but
by far the mostimportant medium for signaling involves the
chemicals known aspheromones. the nest is covered with nopal, dried
grass, and fresh weeds to maintainan environment suitable for
survival and regrowth of the colony Polymorphism in ants is
accompanied by polyethism Winged individuals are called
alatesWorkers are called repletes, store the honey in the
abdomenNot all ants are predatory. Some ants harvest grain and
seeds and othersfeed on insect-produced honeydew. Antennae is
geniculate. Chewing mouthpart. 6. Desert ant Weaver ants 7.
Leaf_cutter antsFire ants Red ants 8. Reddish brown ants are well
known for theiraggressiveness and stings that are used for defence.
They have alkaloidal venoms that produce a burningsensation. Nests
are polygyne (multiple queen) Insect venoms are effective
specialized allomonestypically consisting of watersoluble proteins
andother components that are injected into the body ofan assailant.
Honeydew accounts as a sole food for them. 9. Electron micrograph
of head 10. Eggs are white. They are either fertilized or
unfertilized. Fertilized eggs produce potential queens andworkers
Unfertilized eggs produce male.. 11. The larval stage is composed
of four instar. Is apodous and resemble maggot. Only the fourth
instar can digest solids directly,and it is the only path for
processing of solidfood particles in the colonyThe head is only
weakly sclerotized or muchreduced . 12. Electron micrograph 13.
Pupae are adecticous and exarate withoutcoccon. 14. Adult of fire
ants have two castes: -Reproductive caste-Worker caste 15. They are
winged and fertile. Consist of both sexes ;male and female (queen).
16. Males are haploid. having only a single set of chromosomes.
Males produce genetically homogeneous sperm. 17. Queen is diploid.
They can lay both fertilized and unfertilized eggs. They loose
their wings after mating. They are about 7 mm long in size. 18. The
workers range in size from small to largefrom about 25 mm in
length. Fire ant workers can feed only on liquids: theyhave filters
in their digestive tract that preventthe ingestion of solids. have
reduced ovaries and are irreversibly sterile. There are two main
worker castes, nurses andforagers whose members span a wide
age-sizerange. Workers have sting appartus for defence. 19. They
have complete metamorphoses. 20. Economically:important pests as
seed distributors and as seedharvesters, in the turnover of soils,
and in theregulation of aphid numbers and theminimization of
outbreaks of defoliating insects. 21. One oddity about fire ants is
their evident attractionto electrical fields. They frequently enter
electricalboxes such as outside air conditioners, traffic boxes,and
lights, where they chew wires and short out thecircuits. Fire ants
contract their muscles, which makes theraft temporarily less
buoyant but traps air better,preventing drowning. They gather up
all the eggs in the colony and willmake their way up through the
undergroundnetwork of tunnels, and when the flood waters riseabove
the ground, theyll link up together in thesemassive rafts. 22.
Distribution:Extremely common and cosmopolitan. Habitat: They build
their nests in mounds of soiloutdoors, in landscape areas. 23.
Books : Resh, Vincent H. and Carde, Ring T. (2003). Encycloprdia of
Insects. 1st ed.Elsevier Science.(USA). 20, 29, 31, 165, 242, 293,
415, 416, 436, 534, 535,536, 540, 541 pp. Gullan, P.J. and
Cranston, P.S. (2005). The Insects.3rd ed. BlackwellPublishing Ltd.
USA. 17, 312, 312 pp. Gillott, Cedric .(2005). Entomology. 3rd ed.
Springer. Netherlands. 332. Research articles: John T. Mirenda and
S. Bradleigh Vinson.(May 1981). Division of labourand specification
of castes in the red imported fire ant Solenopsisinvicta buren.
Animal Behaviour, 29(2):410-420 Website :