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Methods of Teaching (con’t) as reported by Marvin B. Gonzaga BSED – Bio. Sci. GED 213 Principles of Teaching

Methods of teaching

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Discusses three methods of teaching: demonstration/performance, case study, and discussion

Text of Methods of teaching

Page 1: Methods of teaching

Methods of Teaching(con’t)

as reported by Marvin B. GonzagaBSED – Bio. Sci.

GED 213 Principles of Teaching

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2. Demonstration/Performance

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• Used to illustrate a general principle with a concrete example or to provide a model of a skill, which students can practice.



Description of

what is to be shown and a list of main points

Demonstration proper with a

running narrative

Students are given

the opportuni

ty to perform

the procedur



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• Aimed at comprehension or application of general principle to a specific instance. It is designed to teach a skill or procedure.



Advantages Disadvantages

Maximizes the efficiency of student participation by providing a good model.

Does not work well in large groups unless the details are large enough to be seen by all.

Student interest is usually very high because of their active involvement.

Setting up is very time consuming.

Often the only way of conveying complex operations required in some skilled tasks.

They don’t always go as planned.

If the students will be practicing the skills, set up time and equipment costs are large.

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• Most useful to either highlight a principle for clarification or make it memorable or as a preliminary to student practice in a skill area.

Most effective

common useSuggestions for Maximizing Effectiveness:

1. Keep demonstrations simple and straightforward.

2. Precede the demonstration with a description.

3. Do everything to make the demo work the first time.

4. Use the same equipment that the students will be


5. Be sure everybody can see clearly.

6. Give a step-by-step description of your actions.

7. Review the major steps and ask a few key questions.

8. During student practice time, be available, circulate,

answer questions, and make suggestions.

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Demonstrations require a lot of preparation time and must be supported with various audio-visuals.

They are particularly useful in teaching skills and are more teacher-centered than student-centered.

There are several adaptations of demonstrations: Projects Peer Tutoring Research Papers Practice Field Trips On-The-Job Trainings Simulated Experiences Videotapes

Instructional Notes

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3. Discussion

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• Intended to be a free give and take between instructor and students on current topic of concern in the course.

• Characterized by probing questions from the instructor designed to elicit student:

Interpretations Opinions Questions


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Low Cognitive Level:When the instructor questions are closed-ended, factual questions.

High Cognitive Level:The discussion can provide the opportunity for learning analysis and evaluation skills.

The discussion also serves as a common method for the exploration of attitudes.



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Advantages Disadvantages

1. Students are actively involved in processing information and ideas.

1. It is the least effective method for conveying factual information.

2. Student needs and interests are dealt with more readily and spontaneously.

2. Can be very time-consuming and unfocused.

3. Student diversity of backgrounds can be exploited in the generation of ideas, approaches and examples.

3. At first, the instructor has difficulty in getting the students involved and the temptation to slip into a review or mini-lecture is great.

4. Students practice formulating questions and communicating ideas.

4. Class size must be restricted.

5. Can be used to examine student attitudes.

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• Discussion serves best when the students have a background in the content of the discussion, through their coursework or because the discussion focuses on some common experience/problem.

• It is used when the instructor wants the students to practice analysis and evaluation or to examine opinions.

Most Effective Common UseSuggestions for Maximizing Effectiveness:1. Be clear what your objectives are and how they fit into the overall course.2. Allow the students to face one another and not make the instructor the focus of the group.3. Provide students with appropriate materials and thought questions to guide their preparation.4. Ask open-ended questions such as “why” questions and questions with no right answer.5. Give students time to think about answers.6. Encourage students to speak by responding thoughtfully with praise and/or respect for their attempt.7. When the discussion is being diverted, act as a process consultant who brings the group back to the central issue.8. Summarize the major points at the end of the session.

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Instructional Notes

Purpose: involve

students in content


Limited to small groups


require considerable


Does not require much audio-

visual support

Variations include: debate, panel discussion, reviews interviews,


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4. Case Study

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• In this method, a situation drawn from real life is followed step-by-step to illustrate a general principle or problem solving strategy.


Unsophisticated Students•Borders on a lecture•The instructor gives general principles and have the students identify the specific materials they have at hand.

Advanced Students

•The students are expected to study the materials and generate the illustrated principles and questions from the specifics.

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• Some factual learning occurs, mostly in the form of general principles.• The case method is primarily aimed at the application of general principles to specific instances or at the analysis and evaluation of the


Cognitive Level

Advantages Disadvantages

1. The students’ level of involvement is much greater than in a lecture.

1. Case preparation is time consuming for the instructor.

2. Provides a higher level of cognitive learning than plain lecture.

2. Students need time to scan the materials or outline main points and critical information.

3. The cases tend to be more interesting since they are drawn from real life.

3. Students need a base of information about the process or problem area.

4. The learning is generalized more readily to other real life situations.

4. There is a tendency to overcomplicate cases drawn from real life by giving too much detail.

5. The instructor can still maintain a high degree of control over the class flow.

5. Case study lends itself best to smaller classes.

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• Case studies are most useful when students are learning a process of information analysis or question asking.

• They are particularly beneficial if the students can go through several cases sequentially , when the instructor begins by directing the process and gradually shifts to allowing the students to direct the process.

Most Effective Common UseSuggestions for Maximizing Effectiveness:

1. Make clear to the students what the process is and follow it closely in the case analysis.2. Select sample students cases which will draw on the students’ backgrounds or interests.3. Be clear in what the objectives for using a case are.4. Don’t make the cases too complex.5. If more than one case will be used, move from simple to complex cases.6. Avoid the temptation to answer your own questions.7. Be well versed in the case details and alternatives yourself.

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