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SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 1 Introduction to the Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling OR-OSHA 206 9512

Manual materials handling

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SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 1

Introduction to the Ergonomics of

Manual Materials Handling

OR-OSHA 206

9512

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 2

OR-OSHA Services

Oregon OSHA offers a wide variety of safety and

health services to employers and employees:

Consultative Services (At all field offices)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 3

OR-OSHA Services

Oregon OSHA offers a wide variety of safety and

health services to employers and employees:

Consultative Services (At all field offices)

Training (Portland, Salem Central, Eugene)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 4

OR-OSHA Services

Oregon OSHA offers a wide variety of safety and

health services to employers and employees:

Consultative Services (At all field offices)

Training (Portland, Salem Central, Eugene)

Standards and Technical Resources (Salem Central)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 5

OR-OSHA Services

Oregon OSHA offers a wide variety of safety and

health services to employers and employees:

Consultative Services (At all field offices)

Training (Portland, Salem Central, Eugene)

Standards and Technical Resources (Salem Central)

Enforcement (At all field offices)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 6

Salem Central Office 378-3272

Portland Field Office 229-5910

Salem Field Office 378-3274

Eugene Field Office 686-7562

Medford Field Office 776-6030

Bend Field Office 388-6066

Pendleton Field Office 276-9175

Giveus

acall

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 7

Section 1. Identify the costs of MMH injuries.

Objectives

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 8

Section 1. Identify the costs of MMH injuries.

Objectives

Section 2. Define the activities involved in MMH.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 9

Section 1. Identify the costs of MMH injuries.

Objectives

Section 2. Define the activities involved in MMH.

Section 3. Apply MMH modeling to hazard recognition.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 10

Section 1. Identify the costs of MMH injuries.

Objectives

Section 2. Define the activities involved in MMH.

Section 3. Apply MMH modeling to hazard recognition.

Section 4. Recognize the factors that influence MMH.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 11

Section 1. Identify the costs of MMH injuries.

Objectives

Section 2. Define the activities involved in MMH.

Section 3. Apply MMH modeling to hazard recognition.

Section 4. Recognize the factors that influence MMH.

Section 5. Understand and apply the guidelines for safe lifting.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 12

Section 1. Identify the costs of MMH injuries.

Objectives

Section 2. Define the activities involved in MMH.

Section 3. Apply MMH modeling to hazard recognition.

Section 4. Recognize the factors that influence MMH.

Section 5. Understand and apply the guidelines for safe lifting.

Section 6. Return to the workplace and conduce a basic survey.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 13

What Is Manual Materials Handling?

Manual Materials Handling (MMH) is an importantapplication of ergonomic principles that particularlyaddreses back injury prevention.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 14

What Is Manual Materials Handling?

Manual Materials Handling (MMH) is an importantapplication of ergonomic principles that particularlyaddreses back injury prevention.

On your own: Your instructor has completed the

demonstration. Make a list of anything that the

instructor did that you believe could result in an

injury to the back.

What did you see?

1. _________________________________________________________________

2. _________________________________________________________________

3. _________________________________________________________________

4. _________________________________________________________________

5. _________________________________________________________________

6. (bonus)___________________________________________________________

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 15

What Is Manual Materials Handling?

Manual Materials Handling (MMH) is an importantapplication of ergonomic principles that particularlyaddreses back injury prevention.

How well did you do? Rate your observation skill level on the following chart.

0 1 2 3 4 5 6

I didn’t

see anything

wrong

I identified

the instructor’s

five plus a

sixth risk

for a bonus

Ex

cell

ent

Bo

nu

s

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 16

$600,000,000 in three years, 1990 - 1992

Section 1. Costs

$ 6.00 per second

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 17

$600,000,000 in three years, 1990 - 1992

30,741 accepted disabling claims in 1993

Section 1. Costs

$ 6.00 per second

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 18

$600,000,000 in three years, 1990 - 1992

55 % were filed for sprains and strains.

Section 1. Costs

$ 6.00 per second

30,741 accepted disabling claims in 1993

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 19

$600,000,000 in three years, 1990 - 1992

30,741 accepted disabling claims in 1993

55 % were filed for sprains and strains.

7,789 (40.9%) were the trunk area.

Section 1. Costs

$ 6.00 per secondC1

2

3

4

5

6

7

T1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 20

$600,000,000 in three years, 1990 - 1992

30,741 accepted disabling claims in 1993

55 % were filed for sprains and strains.

7,789 (40.9%) were the trunk area.

Section 1. Costs

$ 6.00 per secondC1

2

3

4

5

6

7

T1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5Boxes and containers second.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 21

Section 1. Costs

Form a Group

1. Introduce yourself to those at your table

2. Pick a Leader for your group

3. Name your group

4. Write the group name in bold letters on the back

of the name tent provided

5. Everyone in your group should take notes

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 22

Section 1. Costs

As a group: Make a list of all of the possible costs to the

employer, supervisor, and the injured worker. Include

those that may be secondary and away from the work site.

1. _________________________________________________________________

2. _________________________________________________________________

3. _________________________________________________________________

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 23

Manual Materials Handling involves five types of activities:

Section 2. Five Activities

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 24

Manual Materials Handling involves five types of activities:

Lifting / Lowering

Section 2. Five Activities

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 25

Manual Materials Handling involves five types of activities:

Lifting / Lowering

Pushing / Pulling

Section 2. Five Activities

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 26

Manual Materials Handling involves five types of activities:

Lifting / Lowering

Pushing / Pulling

Twisting

Section 2. Five Activities

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 27

Manual Materials Handling involves five types of activities:

Lifting / Lowering

Pushing / Pulling

Twisting

Carrying

Section 2. Five Activities

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 28

Manual Materials Handling involves five types of activities:

Lifting / Lowering

Pushing / Pulling

Twisting

Carrying

Holding

Section 2. Five Activities

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 29

As a group and from your experiences: List as many of these activities as you can in

the next five minutes.

Lifting/Lowering:

Pushing/Pulling:

Twisting:

Carrying:

Holding:

Section 2. Five Activities

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 30

Section 2. Five Activities

Lifting / Lowering : Lifting is to raise from a lower to a higher level. The range of a lift can be from the ground to as high as you can reach your hands. Lowering is the opposite activity from lifting.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 31

Section 2. Five Activities

Pushing / Pulling : Pushing is to press against with force in order to move the object. The opposite is to pull.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 32

Section 2. Five Activities

Twisting : As applied to MMH is the act of moving the upper body to one side or the other while the lower body remains in a relatively fixed position. ( Twisting can take place while the entire body is in a state of motion. )

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 33

Section 2. Five Activities

Carrying : Having an object in ones grasp or attached while in the act of moving. The weight of the object becomes a part of the total weight of the person doing the work.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 34

Section 2. Five Activities

Holding : Having an object in ones grasp while in a static body position.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 35

Anything used to compare one thing with another is considered to be a model.

Section 3. Modeling

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 36

Anything used to compare one thing with another is considered to be a model.

Section 3. Modeling

Hi Y’ all,

They tell me that I’m a“CRASH DUMMY” but Iperfer to think of myself asa “MODEL” for “SAFETY”.What do you think?

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 37

Section 3. Modeling

Three Scientific Models

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 38

Section 3. Modeling

Three Scientific Models

The Biomechanical Models

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 39

Section 3. Modeling

Three Scientific Models

The Biomechanical Models

The Physiological Approach

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 40

Section 3. Modeling

Three Scientific Models

The Biomechanical Models

The Physiological Approach

The NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 41

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

C1

2

34567

T1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

L5 / S1 disc.

A Biomechanical model attempts to establish the physical stresses imposed on the musculoskeletal system while working.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 42

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

C1

2

34567

T1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

L5 / S1 disc.

Sprains and strains have consistently been the major nature of injury, accounting for more than half of all disabling claims. Back sprains and strains were the single most frequent work injury, responsible for 25.3 percent of total claims in 1993.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 43

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

C1

2

34567

T1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

L5 / S1 disc.

Lower back stress

L5 / S1 disc.

The numbers C1 through C7, T1 through T12, and L1 through L5 are the designations assigned to vertebra.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 44

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

C1

2

34567

T1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

L5 / S1 disc.

A vertebra is one of the bony segments composing the spinal column.

Compressive force.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 45

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

The discs allow flexibility in your spine and act as shock absorbers. The center of the dis is jelly-like. It is surrounded by tough rubber-like bands that are attached to the bones (vertebral bodies).

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc., 4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 46

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

The nerves provide the energy to make the muscles work. Please note the nerve locations with regards to the locations of the discs.

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc., 4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 47

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

C1

2

34567

T1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

L5 / S1 disc.

The compressive forces on L5 / S1 are a function of the following:

* The length and weight of the upper extremities.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 48

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

C1

2

34567

T1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

L5 / S1 disc.

The compressive forces on L5 / S1 are a function of the following:

* The length and weight of the upper extremities.

* Angles from vertical of these body parts. How far the object to be handled is from the arch of the foot.)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 49

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

C1

2

34567

T1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

L5 / S1 disc.

The compressive forces on L5 / S1 are a function of the following:

* The length and weight of the upper extremities.

* Angles from vertical of these body parts. How far the object to be handled is from the arch of the foot.)

* The weight of the load. (How much the object to be handled weighs.)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 50

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

C1

2

34567

T1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

L5 / S1 disc.

Twisting in the middle of a lift amplifies the negative results of forces on the lower back. For purposes of illustration consider the follow:

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 51

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

C1

2

34567

T1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

L5 / S1 disc.

Twisting in the middle of a lift amplifies the negative results of forces on the lower back. For purposes of illustration consider the follow:

The Great HerniatedTomato Experiment

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 52

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

What about

“Cumulative Trauma”?“Cumulative Trauma”?

“Cumulative Trauma”?“Cumulative Trauma”?

“Cumulative Trauma”?“Cumulative Trauma”?

“Cumulative Trauma”?“Cumulative Trauma”?

“Cumulative Trauma”?“Cumulative Trauma”?

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 53

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

A

C12

34567

T12

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

B

C

The following model shows the sources of force on L5 / S1 disc.

It does not reflect the added forces during twist / bend lifting.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 54

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

Angle from upper vertical of trunk =

A

C12

34567

T12

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

B

C

“A”

The following model shows the sources of force on L5 / S1 disc.

It does not reflect the added forces during twist / bend lifting.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 55

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

Angle from lower vertical of upper arm =

A

C12

34567

T12

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

B

C

“B”

The following model shows the sources of force on L5 / S1 disc.

It does not reflect the added forces during twist / bend lifting.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 56

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

Angle from upper vertical of lower arm =

A

C12

34567

T12

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

B

C

“C”

The following model shows the sources of force on L5 / S1 disc.

It does not reflect the added forces during twist / bend lifting.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 57

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

A

C1234567

T123456

789

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

B

C

Factors to consider :

* Factor 1 = Subject weight, subject height, and Angle A

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 58

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

A

C1234567

T123456

789

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

B

C

Factors to consider :

* Factor 1 = Subject weight, subject height, and Angle A

* Factor 2 = Subject weight, subject height, Angle A, and Angle B

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 59

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

A

C1234567

T123456

789

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

B

C

Factors to consider :

* Factor 1 = Subject weight, subject height, and Angle A

* Factor 2 = Subject weight, subject height, Angle A, and Angle B

* Factor 3 = Subject weight, subject height, Angle A, Angle B, and Angle C

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 60

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

A

C1234567

T123456

789

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

B

C

Factors to consider :

* Factor 1 = Subject weight, subject height, and Angle A

* Factor 2 = Subject weight, subject height, Angle A, and Angle B

* Factor 3 = Subject weight, subject height, Angle A, Angle B, and Angle C

* Factor 4 = Object weight, subject height, Angle A, Angle B, and Angle C

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 61

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

A

C1234567

T123456

789

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

B

CAngles A B C Object

F1

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 62

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

A

C1234567

T123456

789

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

B

CAngles A B C Object

F1

F2

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 63

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

A

C1234567

T123456

789

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

B

CAngles A B C Object

F1

F2

F3

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 64

Section 3. Modeling

The Biomechanical Models

A

C1234567

T123456

789

10

11

12

L1

2

3

4

5

B

CAngles A B C Object

F1

F2

F3

F4

4 3 2 1

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 65

Section 3. Modeling

The Physiological Approach

When a task requires more than 3 lifts per minute.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 66

Section 3. Modeling

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

9

10

11

12

13

14

A person’s endurance is primarily limited by the capacity of the oxygen transport system.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 67

Section 3. Modeling

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

10

11

12

13

14

A person’s endurance is primarily limited by the capacity of the oxygen transport system.

Increased metabolism demands an increase in the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the

tissue.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 68

Section 3. Modeling

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

10

11

12

13

14

A person’s endurance is primarily limited by the capacity of the oxygen transport system.

Increased metabolism demands an increase in the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to the

tissue.

Energy cost, heart rate, bloodpressure and blood lactate

are measured.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 69

Section 3. Modeling

Frequency of Lifts (lifts/minute)

WeightLifted

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

10

11

12

13

14

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

The frequency is marked on the line at the bottom of the chart.

The Relationship of Frequency to Weight.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 70

Section 3. Modeling

Frequency of Lifts (lifts/minute)

WeightLifted

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

10

11

12

13

14

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

The weight that can be lifted can now be marked on the left of the chart.

The Relationship of Frequency to Weight.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 71

Section 3. Modeling

Frequency of Lifts (lifts/minute)

WeightLifted

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

10

11

12

13

14

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

As the frequency of lifts per minute increases, the weight

of the objects to be lifted mustbe decreased.

The Relationship of Frequency to Weight.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 72

Section 3. Modeling

Frequency of Lifts (lifts/minute)

WeightLifted

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

10

11

12

13

14

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

As the frequency of lifts per minute increases, the weight

of the objects to be lifted mustbe decreased.

The Relationship of Frequency to Weight.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 73

Section 3. Modeling

Frequency of Lifts (lifts/minute)

WeightLifted

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

10

11

12

13

14

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

As the frequency of lifts per minute increases, the weight

of the objects to be lifted mustbe decreased.

The Relationship of Frequency to Weight.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 74

Section 3. Modeling

Frequency of Lifts (lifts/minute)

WeightLifted

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

10

11

12

13

14

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

As the frequency of lifts per minute increases, the weight

of the objects to be lifted mustbe decreased.

The Relationship of Frequency to Weight.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 75

Section 3. Modeling

Frequency of Lifts (lifts/minute)

WeightLifted

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

10

11

12

13

14

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

As the frequency of lifts per minute increases, the weight

of the objects to be lifted mustbe decreased.

The Relationship of Frequency to Weight.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 76

Section 3. Modeling

Frequency of Lifts (lifts/minute)

WeightLifted

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

10

11

12

13

14

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

As the frequency of lifts per minute increases, the weight

of the objects to be lifted mustbe decreased.

The Relationship of Frequency to Weight.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 77

Section 3. Modeling

Frequency of Lifts (lifts/minute)

WeightLifted

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

10

11

12

13

14

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

As the frequency of lifts per minute increases, the weight

of the objects to be lifted mustbe decreased.

The Relationship of Frequency to Weight.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 78

Section 3. Modeling

Frequency of Lifts (lifts/minute)

WeightLifted

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

9

10

11

12

13

14

The Physiological Approach = ( 3 + lifts per min. )

As the frequency of lifts per minute increases, the weight

of the objects to be lifted mustbe decreased.

The Relationship of Frequency to Weight.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 79

Section 3. Modeling

The Physiological Approach

Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum level of metabolism of which a person is capable. An individuals aerobic capacity depends on the capacity to deliver oxygen to the working muscles.

Aerobic Capacity

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 80

Section 3. Modeling

The Physiological Approach

It is advantageous to design / select the task load wich maximizes efficiency.

Effective Use of Muscles

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 81

Section 3. Modeling

The Physiological Approach

It is advantageous to design / select the task load which maximizes efficiency.

For dynamic effort (work) the optimal load is approx. 30% of maximum.

Effective Use of Muscles

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 82

Section 3. Modeling

The Physiological Approach

It is advantageous to design / select the task load which maximizes efficiency.

For dynamic effort (work) the optimal load is approx. 30% of maximum.

Overloading or underloading the muscular system is not efficient.

Effective Use of Muscles

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 83

Section 3. Modeling

The Physiological Approach

It is advantageous to design / select the task load which maximizes efficiency.

For dynamic effort (work) the optimal load is approx. 30% of maximum.

Overloading or underloading the muscular system is not efficient.

For static effort (work) the optimal load is approx. 10% of maximum.

Effective Use of Muscles

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 84

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

National Institute of Occupational Safety & Health (NIOSH) Work Practices Guide for Manual Lifting 1982

V2

V1

H1

H2

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 85

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

The NIOSH guidelines determine what the maximum load should be, given the following characteristics:

V2

V1

H1

H2

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 86

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

The NIOSH guidelines determine what the maximum load should be, given the following characteristics:

* Weight of the object lifted.

V2

V1

H1

H2

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 87

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

The NIOSH guidelines determine what the maximum load should be, given the following characteristics:

* Weight of the object lifted.

* Position of load with respect tothe body; starting and ending pointof horizontal and vertical distance.

V2

V1

H1

H2

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 88

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

The NIOSH guidelines determine what the maximum load should be, given the following characteristics:

* Weight of the object lifted.

* Position of load with respect tothe body; starting and ending pointof horizontal and vertical distance.

* Frequency of lift.

V2

V1

H1

H2

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 89

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

The NIOSH guidelines determine what the maximum load should be, given the following characteristics:

* Weight of the object lifted.

* Position of load with respect tothe body; starting and ending pointof horizontal and vertical distance.

* Frequency of lift.

* Duration of lift.

V2

V1

H1

H2

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 90

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

H1 = horizontal location from the midpoint between ankles to the center of the load at origin of lift (in inches)

V2

V1

H1

H2

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 91

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

H1 = horizontal location from the midpoint between ankles to the center of the load at origin of lift (in inches)

V1 = vertical location of the hands at the beginning of lift measured from floor to hands (in inches)

V2

V1

H1

H2

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 92

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

H1 = horizontal location from the midpoint between ankles to the center of the load at origin of lift (in inches)

V1 = vertical location of the hands at the beginning of lift measured from floor to hands (in inches)

D = vertical travel distance from origin to destination of load (in inches)

V2

V1

H1

H2

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 93

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

H1 = horizontal location from the midpoint between ankles to the center of the load at origin of lift (in inches)

V1 = vertical location of the hands at the beginning of lift measured from floor to hands (in inches)

D = vertical travel distance from origin to destination of load (in inches)

F = average frequency of lift(lifts / minute)

V2

V1

H1

H2

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 94

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

This range is acceptable.Body Interference

Limit

Functional Reach

Limit

Action

Limit(cm)

(in.)

Acceptable

HORIZONTAL LOCATION OF LOAD

WE

IGH

T L

IFT

ED

(lb.) (Kg)

200

150

100

50

0

80

40

20

00

60

20 40 60 80

0 10 20 30

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 95

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

Body Interference

Limit

Functional Reach

Limit Maximum

Permissible

Limit

Action

Limit(cm)

(in.)

Acceptable

HORIZONTAL LOCATION OF LOAD

WE

IGH

T L

IFT

ED

(lb.) (Kg)

200

150

100

50

0

80

40

20

00

60

20 40 60 80

0 10 20 30

Administrative

Controls

“Administrative Controls” are required in this range.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 96

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

Body Interference

Limit

Hazardous

Lifting

ConditionsFunctional Reach

Limit Maximum

Permissible

Limit

Action

Limit(cm)

(in.)

Administrative

Controls

Required

Acceptable

HORIZONTAL LOCATION OF LOAD

WE

IGH

T L

IFT

ED

(lb.) (Kg)

200

150

100

50

0

80

40

20

00

60

20 40 60 80

0 10 20 30

The lift should be eliminatedby using “Engineering Controls.”

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 97

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

Design the horizontal distance to be as close to 7 inches as possible.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 98

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

Design the horizontal distance to be as close to 7 inches as possible.

Design the vertical location of the origin of the lift to be at least 30 inches from the floor.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 99

Section 3. Modeling

NIOSH Lifting Guidelines

Design the horizontal distance to be as close to 7 inches as possible.

Design the vertical location of the origin of the lift to be at least 30 inches from the floor.

The vertical travel distance should be no greater than 10 inches.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 100

Section 4. Factors that Influence MMH

Manual Materials Handling is influenced by the following factors:

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 101

Section 4. Factors that Influence MMH

Manual Materials Handling is influenced by the following factors:

Worker Characteristics

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 102

Section 4. Factors that Influence MMH

Manual Materials Handling is influenced by the following factors:

Worker Characteristics

Task Characteristics / Work Practices

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 103

Section 4. Factors that Influence MMH

Manual Materials Handling is influenced by the following factors:

Worker Characteristics

Task Characteristics / Work Practices

Material / Container Characteristics

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 104

Section 4. Factors that Influence MMH

Manual Materials Handling is influenced by the following factors:

Worker Characteristics

Task Characteristics / Work Practices

Material / Container Characteristics

Worker characteristics are different in each of us and affect the kind and amount of work that we can perform.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 105

The following five general rules should be applied at every opportunity.

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 106

The following five general rules should be applied at every opportunity.

Plan the lift

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 107

The following five general rules should be applied at every opportunity.

Plan the lift

Both squat and stoop lifting is now considered acceptable for jobs requiring repeditive lifting. The term used to describe this is free form lifting. No matter what type of lift is used, it is never permissable to exceed the maximum acceptable load of the worker.

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 108

The following five general rules should be applied at every opportunity.

Plan the lift

Both squat and stoop lifting is now considered acceptable for jobs requiring repeditive lifting. The term used to describe this is free form lifting. No matter what type of lift is used, it is never permissable to exceed the maximum acceptable load of the worker.

Keep the load as close to the body as possible.

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 109

The following five general rules should be applied at every opportunity.

Plan the lift

Both squat and stoop lifting is now considered acceptable for jobs requiring repeditive lifting. The term used to describe this is free form lifting. No matter what type of lift is used, it is never permissable to exceed the maximum acceptable load of the worker.

Keep the load as close to the body as possible.

Lift the load with a smooth body motion. (Avoid jerking)

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 110

The following five general rules should be applied at every opportunity.

Plan the lift

Both squat and stoop lifting is now considered acceptable for jobs requiring repeditive lifting. The term used to describe this is free form lifting. No matter what type of lift is used, it is never permissable to exceed the maximum acceptable load of the worker.

Keep the load as close to the body as possible.

Lift the load with a smooth body motion. (Avoid jerking)

When turning, do not twist. Turn with the feet.

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 111

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 112

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 113

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 114

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 115

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 116

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc., 4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

Body Mechanicics

Keep back arched when lifting. Keep head and shoulders up.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 117

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

Body Mechanicics

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc., 4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

Plan ahead. Test the load before lifting.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 118

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc., 4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

Keep the weight close to the body.

10 lbs. 100 lbs. 10 lbs. 10 lbs.

10 lbs.

100 lbs.

10

lbs.

10 lbs.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 119

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc., 4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

The Diagonal LiftSquat. Head up. Back arched. Feet spread. One foot ahead.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 120

Section 5. Safe Lifting Guidelines

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc., 4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

The Power LiftPartial squat. Head up. Back arched. Feet spread. One foot ahead.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 121

Section 6. The MMH Survey

Surveys are tools that can remind us of conditions and practices that when present in the workplace can lead to injury or illness. Surveys should ask critical questions about the operation.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 122

The Manual Materials Handling Survey

Costs Yes No

Are we experiencing costly accidents relative to this task?

Activities

Are any of the following activities required in this task?

Lifting / Lowering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pushing / Pulling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Twisting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carrying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Holding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Section 6. The MMH Survey

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 123

The Manual Materials Handling Survey

Costs Yes No

Are we experiencing costly accidents relative to this task?

Activities

Are any of the following activities required in this task?

Lifting / Lowering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Pushing / Pulling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Twisting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Carrying . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Holding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Section 6. The MMH Survey

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 124

Models

Do any of the following models apply to this task?

Biomechanical (compression forces at L5) . . . . . . .Physiological (frequency vs. weight). . . . . . . . . . . .Aerobic Capacity (conditioning) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Effective use of muscles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NIOSH lifting guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Factors

Are any of the following influencing the task?

Worker Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Task Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Material / Container Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . .

Section 6. The MMH Survey

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 125

Models

Do any of the following models apply to this task?

Biomechanical (compression forces at L5) . . . . . . .Physiological (frequency vs. weight). . . . . . . . . . . .Aerobic Capacity (conditioning) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Effective use of muscles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .NIOSH lifting guidelines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

Factors

Are any of the following influencing the task?

Worker Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Task Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Material / Container Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . .

Section 6. The MMH Survey

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 126

Section 6. The MMH Survey

Training

Is the employee in need of training in safe lifting? . . . . . . .Is the employee in need of training in body mechanics? . .

Note: Any one “Yes” answer can be serious enough to cause serious injury or illness. The more “Yes” answers the higher the risk, even when the single “Yes” is determined to be minor. This is due to the cumulative effect of multiple negative factors.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 127

Section 6. The MMH Survey

Training

Is the employee in need of training in safe lifting? . . . . . . .Is the employee in need of training in body mechanics? . .

Note: Any one “Yes” answer can be serious enough to cause serious injury or illness. The more “Yes” answers the higher the risk, even when the single “Yes” is determined to be minor. This is due to the cumulative effect of multiple negative factors.

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 128

Section 6. The MMH Survey

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 129

Section 6. The MMH Survey

The Golfer’s Lift

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 130

Section 6. The MMH Survey

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 131

Section 6. The MMH Survey

Kneel When Working In A Low Position

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 132

Section 6. The MMH Survey

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 133

Section 6. The MMH Survey

Straight Leg Lift, Bend At The Hips, Not The Back

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 134

Section 6. The MMH Survey

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 135

Section 6. The MMH Survey

Partial Squat Lift(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 136

Section 6. The MMH Survey

Reaching With a Heavy Load

(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 137

Section 6. The MMH Survey

Back Unsupported(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 138

Section 6. The MMH Survey

Working Surface Too Low and Far Away(Adapted from: The Saunders Group inc.,

4250 Norex Drive, Chaska, MN 55318)

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 139

Appendices

* Definitions

* Equipment, Materials, Container Characteristics

* Biomechanical Model

* NIOSH Lifting Summary

* Manual Materials Handling Survey

* Task Evaluation Guide

* Action Plan Flow Diagram

SC 206 Ergonomics of Manual Materials Handling 7/96 140

Thank You !