Lesson 3 - editing

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Learning Objective

To develop our understanding of technical codes through consideration of editing techniquesLearning Objective

we can analyse:how long each shot lasts e.g. longer shots = more relaxed mood the style of editthe type of transition Technical codes - Editing

EditingBriefly defined: The ways one scene changes to the next

Why is editing important?The term editing refers to the changing shots within a piece of film. The pace (speed) with which this happens has important role in creating atmosphere. For instance, if there is a car chase on screen, the editing will be rapid, making us excited. A countryside picnic scene, on the other hand, will probably feature slow editing; we relax and take in the details on the screen.

ContinuityContinuity editingCutting shots to tell a story with narrative continuity, helping the viewer make sense of the action by implying spatial relationships and ensuring smooth flow from shot to shot. Realism - edit is invisible so action appears real rather than constructed.There are 5 key continuity techniques:

Continuity editingmaster shot/establishing shot - This is our establishing or long shot (establishes the space in which action is to happen)180 degree rule

180 Degree RuleIt is a filming guideline that the participants in a scene should have same left-right relationship to each other. Breaking the rule can confuse the audience.

Things are easier to explain with picturesIn this scene:The man is always facing rightThe woman is always facing leftMo matter which position or angle the camera is shooting from, the characters will always be facing the same direction throughout.

What happens if you cross the lineIf you move the camera across the line, characters face the same way as each other

This equals confusion

How do I cross the line?Show the movementThis way the viewer wont become disorientated as they will have see the camera move.Once the line has been cross, all shots must be from that side of the line, unless you cross back over (again showing the movement)

Continuity editingmaster shot/establishing shot180 degree ruleshot/reverse shot

Shot/Reverse shotUsed in filming dialogue / characters looking at each other or objects. This shot frames the speaker as he says his dialogue, often there will be a part of the listener in the shot, slightly out of focus for example, the shoulder slightly out of focus. It can be point of view or over the shoulder shot.This comes in line with the 180 degree rule.

Continuity editingmaster shot/establishing shot180 degree ruleshot/reverse shoteyeline match

When the character looks off-screen or at something we cant see, the next shot shows us what they are looking at.This is usually followed up with a close up to show us the reaction of the character if a reaction is needed.

Why Eyeline match is important

Continuity editingmaster shot/establishing shot180 degree ruleshot/reverse shoteyeline matchmatch on action

Match on ActionIt is an editing technique for continuity editing in which one shot cuts to another shot portraying the action of the subject in the first shot. This creates an impression of continuity visual bridge. The view matches the action.It portrays a continuous sense of the same action rather than 2 separate scenarios (although you may have shot it at different days). Watch this scene from the Matrix

Remember:Wearing the same clothesAppears identical to the previous filming timeLighting(time of day/weather)Clocks in the view must be same time.Also if person entering on the left they have to leave on the right.

Continuity editingmaster shot/establishing shot180 degree ruleshot/reverse shoteyeline matchmatch on action

Non-ContinuityMontage giving information in compressed form can come under

Non-continuity editing Continuity is broken and construction is more apparent. Meaning often created through juxtaposition and metaphor shot inserts.

4 types of Transitions

The process of cutting from one shot to another usually involves a simple straight cut or simply cut. However there are other means of transition available to a film editorFade to blackDissolve/cross fadeWipe

Watch the clip