1Latin American Wars for Independence
2HaitiRuling Country:Cause/Inspiration to Revolt:Revolutionary Leader:Effects/Dates:Spain & France
- French Revolution- Competition over sugar economy;- whites vs. free blacks- slaves revoltToussaint LOuvertureI was born a slave, but nature gave me a soul of a free man.
Liberated slaves on French & Spanishsides; Napoleon sent troops; LOuverturewas captured; 1804 - French go home1804 = Haitian Independence3Venezuela, Bolivia, Colombia, EcuadorRuling Country:Cause/Inspiration to Revolt:Revolutionary Leader:Effects/Dates:Spain
- Enlightenment- Injustice of Spanish rule- Fight for all rights
Simon Bolivar The Liberator-1819-1825; controlled NW S. Amer.: Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, Ecuador & Peru = Gran ColombiaDream of Unified S. Amer. failed Joined with San Martin
Bolivars Gran ColombiaThe Fragmentation of Bolivars Gran ColombiaWeakness of Regionalism5Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay Ruling Country:Cause/Inspiration to Revolt:Revolutionary Leader:Effects/Dates:Spain
General turned revolutionaryFreedom from SpanishJoin efforts with BolivarJose de San Martin1820: Freed Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, ParaguayLiberated Southern South America
6BrazilRuling Country:Cause/Inspiration to Revolt:Revolutionary Leader:Effects/Dates:Portugal
Independence movementPortuguese Prince declares Independence
Prince Pedro; Pedro I1822: Prince Pedro became Pedro I 1st ruler of the Empire of BrazilConstitutional monarchy established
if Brazil starts to demand independence, make sure you are the one to proclaim it. King John VI of Portugal -18207MexicoRuling Country:Cause/Inspiration to Revolt:Revolutionary Leader:Effects/Dates:Spain
Independence movement begun by a catholic priest: Miguel Hidalgo Social justice for Indians, Mestizos, slavesConstitutional ruleHe is killed by conservative CreolesMiguel Hidalgo Father of Mexico1810 Hidalgo started movement that would bring independence to Mexico 1821 - Independence comes under Creole dictator 1823 Mexican Republic declared
Common Patterns to Latin American Wars for Independence
Led by upper-class colonial elites = Creoles (except Haiti-slave revolt)Benefitted from Napoleons conquest of Spain & PortugalInspired by French and American RevolutionsLeaders educated in Enlightenment ideasIndependence was successful nation building was notReview tip: Review analytically; ask yourself why? Or how? Or Impact of?
10Common Patterns to Latin American Wars for Independence
Revolution in- class project1. Create a poster highlighting a revolution.HeadingCatchy sloganBackground and regionDriving ideologies/goals Key player/s and groupsResults2. Create a 1-2 minute skit highlighting the key concepts of the particular revolution. 1-2 minutesNeed written scriptNeed to clearly reference/address specific contentNeeds to be clearly informative
11Critical Intro:The Monroe Doctrine: Imperialism or Isolationism? Explain.12Critical Intro:Describe regionalism and the impacts of it, in the context of the Latin American revolutions.1314
CubaI. 1868 Cuba fights for independence in a 10 year war against Spaina. Islands in ruin, Cuba gave upb. Many Cubans forced into concentration campsc. Americans join fight for Cuba
II. Spanish American Wara. Lasted four months, Spain gave up easilyb. Between Spain and Untied States/Mexico/Islands c. 1901 Cuba became an independent country (by name) i. However, the U.S. set up a government in Cubad. Spain also turned over Puerto Rico, Guam, and the Philippines to the U.S.
III. Panama Canal built over 10 years by U.S.
The United StatesAfter revolution will have Civil War, which will accelerate industrialization in U.S.Will attract immigrants
Continental Railroad move westCanadaDid not experience a war for independenceRemained a British colony until 1867 independence came slowly through series of agreements with Britain Dominion of Canada self governing political system officially tied to Great Britain Disagreements between French and English settlers
Latin America Latin American countries fragmented and had problems establishing the legitimacy of their central governments
Dissolved into numerous independent states Regionalism = identity with a particular region rather than large area
Leaders emerged Creole elitesThose that disagreed with decisions were met with violenceLeaders who gathered large armies became known as caudillos Juan Manual de Rosas, Benito Juarez and Porfirio Diaz
Latin America cont. Lack of political institutions led to instability in Latin American governmentsLimited economic development dependent on other countries for manufactured goods
Foreign investment in 19th centuryLed to some advancements
Greek Independence from Ottoman Empire