Kinds of Curriculum

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<p>Curriculum </p> <p>Curriculum What Should be learned?</p> <p>Beverly Grace C. Oblina MA-TESL What is curriculum?</p> <p> Curriculum is a design PLAN for learning that requires the purposeful and proactive organization, sequencing, and management of the interactions among the teacher, the students, and the content knowledge we want students to acquire.</p> <p>*We will examine seven different curriculum theories.Outcome-Based EducationCore CurriculumWhole languageCharacter EducationMulticulturalismTech-PrepPaideiaOutcome-Based EducationDefinition- In outcome-based learning, all school programs and instructional efforts are designed to have produced specific, lasting results in students by the time they leave school.04/01/2012Gift 2012 by Dr P H Waghodekar, Aurangabad5Outcome-Based Education (OBE)OBE is an educational process that focuses on what students can do or the qualities they should develop after they are taught.OBE involves the restructuring of curriculum, assessment and reporting practices in education to reflect the achievement of high order learning and mastery rather than accumulation of course credits.Both structures and curricula are designed to achieve those capabilities or qualities.Discourages traditional education approaches based on direct instruction of facts and standard methods.It requires that the students demonstrate that they have learnt the required skills and content.04/01/2012Gift 2012 by Dr P H Waghodekar, Aurangabad6Focus and Benefits of OBEOBE addresses the following key questions:What do we want the students to have or be able to do? How can we best help students achieve it? How will we know whether they students have achieved it?How do we close the loop for further improvement (Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI))?Benefits of OBE:More directed &amp; coherent curriculum.Graduates will be more relevant to industry &amp; other stakeholders (more well rounded graduates)Continuous Quality Improvement (CQI) is in place.7Expectations on Students under OBE the OutcomesStudents are expected to be able to do more challenging tasks other than memorize and reproduce what was taught.Students should be able to: write project proposals, complete projects, analyze case studies, give case presentations, show their abilities to think, question, research, and make decisions based on the findings.Be more creative, able to analyze and synthesize information.Able to plan and organize tasks, able to work in a team as a community or in entrepreneurial service teams to propose solutions to problems and market their solutions.Core CurriculumDefinitionIn a core curriculum, a predetermined body of skills, knowledge, and abilities is taught to all students.Discussion- The core curriculum movement assumes there is a uniform body of knowledge that all students should know. Presumably, this curriculum will produce educated and responsible graduates for the community. </p> <p>How a core curriculum affects the following elements of education:Curriculum--The curriculum is built on a mandated core, which is defined and designed outside the classroom. All students learn a common set of knowledge, skills, and abilities. Though academic content remains the primary focus of the core curriculum, some core teaching is moving toward application and problem solving.Core CurriculumInstruction--Instruction is based on a defined core content. Rather than focusing on discovery, teaching revolves around imparting a predetermined body of knowledge. Although the core curriculum method does not preclude using critical thinking, problem solving, and team learning, it prompts teaching toward the "correct" answer. </p> <p>Core CurriculumAssessment--The core content literally shapes the assessment process. The core curriculum method easily lends itself to traditional testing based on information recall, as well as the use of conventional letter grades. However, a core curriculum doesn't preclude the use of authentic assessment and portfolios.Core CurriculumWhole LanguageDefinitionThis philosophy about curriculum--in both language arts and a broader, more general program--is based on recent research of how children acquire oral and written language skills.Whole language is a currently controversial approach to teaching reading that is based onconstructivist learning theoryand ethnographic studies of students in classrooms. With whole language, teachers are expected to provide a literacy rich environment for their students and to combine speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Whole language teachers emphasize the meaning of texts over the sounds of letters, and phonics instruction becomes just one component of the whole language classroom.Constructivist learning theory is based on the idea that children learn by connecting new knowledge to previously learned knowledge. The term is a building metaphor that includes students using scaffolding to organize new information. If children cannot connect new knowledge to old knowledge in a meaningful way, they may with difficulty memorize it (rote learning), but they will not have a real understanding of what they are learning.</p> <p>Whole language is considered a "top down" approach where the reader constructs a personal meaning for a text based on using their prior knowledge to interpret the meaning of what they are reading. Problems associated with whole language include a lack of structure that has been traditionally supplied by the scope and sequence, lessons and activities, and extensive graded literature found in basal readers. Whole language puts a heavy burden on teachers to develop their own curriculum.Whole LanguageWhole LanguageThe Whole Language movement is not a teaching method but an approach to learning that sees language as a whole entity. Each language teacher is free to implement the approach according to the needs of particular class. Advantages claimed for Whole Language are as follows: focuses on experiences and activities that are relevant to Ss lives and needs, use of authentic materials, it can be used to facilitate the development of all aspects of an L2. Whole Language promotes fluency at the expense of accuracy.Character EducationDefinitionThis curriculum method revolves around developing "good character" in students by practicing and teaching moral values and decision making. Educators from this diverse array of schools have transformed their school cultures, reduced discipline referrals, increased academic achievement for all learners, developed global citizens, and improved job satisfaction and retention among teachers.</p> <p>Character education includes and complements a broad range of educational approaches such as whole child education, service learning, social-emotional learning, and civic education. All share a commitment to helping young people become responsible, caring, and contributing citizens.Character education teaches students to understand, commit to, and act on shared ethical values--in other words, "know the good, desire the good, and do the good." Typical core values include respect, responsibility, trustworthiness, fairness, caring, and community participation. </p> <p>Character Education17Character EducationTo be effective in schools, character education must involve everyoneschool staff, parents, students, and community membersand be part of every school day. It must be integrated into the curriculum as well as school culture. When this happens and school communities unite around developing character, schools see amazing results.</p> <p>Multiculturalism </p> <p>DefinitionMulticulturalism is based on the belief that varying cultural dynamics are the fourth force--along with the psychodynamic, behavioral, and humanistic forces--explaining human behavior. Since the ability to recognize our own and others' cultural lenses is essential to all learning, it must be taught, along with communication and thinking skills, as prerequisites to learning.</p> <p>Multiculturalism </p> <p>Basic ElementsThe National Council for Social Studies, in its Curriculum Guidelines for Multicultural Education, lists the key functions of multicultural education as: Providing students with a sharp sense of selfHelping students understand the experience of ethnic and cultural groups in historyHelping students understand that conflict between ideals and reality exist in every human societyHelping students develop decision-making, social participation, and citizenship skillsAchieving full literacy in at least two languages </p> <p>Multiculturalism </p> <p>"Multicultural" is broadly understood to include experiences shaping perceptions common to age, gender, religion, socio-economic status, and exceptionality of any kind, as well as cultural, linguistic, and racial identities.This controversial approach has stirred passionate critics, who contend that it aims to replace "Eurocentrism" with "othercentrisms." Critics also allege that multiculturalism hinders the assimilation of various cultures into America's greatest hallmark: the melting pot. </p> <p>Tech PrepDefinitionTech prep is most traditionally and frequently defined as a four-year program (during grades 11-14) that leads to an associate degree or two-year certificate in a specific career field. This curriculum includes a common core of required mathematics, science communications, and technologies that is integrated, applied, and sequenced. Tech PrepThere is a strong consensus that American schools have generally ignored the average student: the middle 50% of teenagers who complete high school, but do not attend four-year colleges, universities, or graduate schools. These students are no longer prepared to enter today's changed workforce, which demands workers who can think, problem solve, work in teams, and apply knowledge. The tech prep curriculum was designed as the instructional strategy for preparing such students to work in a labor market that requires more technical skills. Tech PrepCurriculum--High schools and community colleges coordinate the tech prep curriculum together, eliminating duplication and ensuring skills are acquired in the best possible sequence. Critics of tech prep programs maintain that neither the curriculum in the high school nor the community college has changed to reflect the issues and problems of today's workplace. Predominantly, the focus is on teaching math, science, and communication for both application and contextual purposes. </p> <p>Tech PrepInstruction--Tech prep instruction is still classroom-oriented. Most of the occupational skills are taught in the laboratory setting. There is a strong push to try integrating what happens in the academic classroom with activities in the occupational labs. </p> <p>Tech PrepAssessment:--In the occupational labs, we see a greater use of assessing work samples and projects than in traditional classes. However, there is still a heavy reliance on traditional tests and grades. The drawback of this is that although tech prep prepares students for the job market, it may not prepare them for the lack of traditional assessment in the workplace--in other words, employers don't rate employee performances with letter grades and test scores. </p> <p>Paideia</p> <p>DefinitionThis "essentialist" curriculum created in 1982 by Mortimer Adler and The Paideia Group proposes a single, required, 12-year course in general, humanistic learning as a foundation for the future learning of all students. </p> <p>Paideia</p> <p>Basic ElementsThe Paideia plan is built on the understanding that education serves to prepare individuals for (1) earning a living, (2) citizenship, and (3) self-development. With that in mind, here is the plan's proposed framework: </p> <p>Paideia</p> <p>GOALSAcquisition of organized knowledgeDevelopment of intellectual skills (learning skills)Enlarged understanding of ideas and valuesMEANSDidactic instructionCoaching, exercises, supervised practiceSocratic questioning and active participationAREASLanguage, literature, fine arts, math, natural science, history, geography, social studiesSpeaking, listening, calculating, problem solving, critical judgmentDiscussion of books (not texts) and art performances</p> <p>Paideia</p> <p>Theodore Sizer of the Paideia Group insists that Paideia is not a detailed curriculum for deliberate reasons. The Paideia Group believes that only the teachers and principals who can change education should design a specific curriculum blueprint. Instead, the Paideia plan provides a framework and process for "crafting the critical details of the program in ways appropriate to their own communities." </p> <p>Overall SignificanceDesigning a curriculum involves the interaction of several participants, reaching beyond the academic wall to impact the entire community. Without an effective curriculum, students would not be able to understand or meet the challenges of society. A curriculum prepares an individual with the knowledge to be successful, confident and responsible citizens.</p> <p>Reference:'s-Behind-Its-Success%C2%A2.aspx Leadership (March 1984): Dennis Gray, "Whatever Became of Paideia? (And How Do You Pronounce It?), p. 56-57. Daniel Tanner, "The American High School at the Crossroads," p. 4-13. </p> <p>Multicultural Education: Issues and Perspectives, Banks, J.A. and Banks, C.M. (Eds). Boston: Allyn &amp; Bacon. "Character Education," Education Leadership, November, 1993. </p>