PROF.MADYA DR. HAFIDZ HJ OMARPROF.MADYA DR. HAFIDZ HJ OMAR
An effort to understand one situation in its own context. How individual take action, react, going through life normally and show reaction towards to meander of life. The Input is the end result of research that give a deep understanding of the respondent real life experiences. (Patton, 1985)
RESEARCHER AS AN INSTRUMENT
• Use opportunity fully. • Have the opportunity to fix weaknesses and improve
researcher capability. • Be patient.• Only the researcher knows the best method to be
used. • Sample is chosen according to the need. • Guess and know when to listen and provoke.
Research Criteria• Understand one phenomena from the respondent’s
perspective and not from the researcher’s. • Researcher as the instrument. (Human
Instrumentation vs. Inanimate Inventory)• Involve fieldwork.• Inductive research-Build concept, theory, model vs.
testing theory or answering research questions. • Focus on process, meaning, comprehension.• Flexible, ability to change according to time
depending on situation, research level and outcome.• Purposeful.• Long duration and always with be with the
RESEARCH AS AN INSTURMENT
• Capable of avoiding biasness. Researchers are bond with values, experiences, views, principles and own ego.
• Having the skill to communicate sincerely,good in building rapport, w questioning and listening techniques must be improved from time to time.
Research Process (Glaser 1978)
• Fully dependent on the researcher- skills, physical fitness, maturity, motivation, interest and alert in recognizing information.
• Sometimes the researcher is faced with the phenomena that is needed to be investigated and sometimes only need to be listened.
• From time to time concept will be built, conformation will emerge and wanting to deeply understand the burden until it can be reality as a real phenomenon to be reported.
Research Tests a Theory
Researcher Test Hypotheses of Research Questions Derived from the Theory
Researcher Operationalizes Concepts or Variables Derived from the Theory
Researcher Use an Instrument to Measure
Variables in the Theory
6.4 The Deductive mode of Research in a Quantitative Study
Researcher Develops a Theory or Compares Pattern with Other Theories
Researcher From Patterns (Theories)
Researcher Forms Categories
Researcher Asks Questions
Researcher Gathers Information
6.5 The Inductive Mode of Research in a Qualitative Study
ETHICS IN RESEARCH• DEFINITION
Relating to morals, treating of moral questions morally correct, honorable…Set of principles of morals…Science of morals, moral principles, rule of conduct, whole field of moral science (Oxford English Dictionary)
In qualitative research, the researcher is the most important instrument, they have to control their behavior (Cassel & Jacob, 1987)
ROLE OF THE RESEARCHER
As an instrument, researcher should be alert and responsible to sensitive issues. Traits that are needed- honest, fair, knowledgeable and experiences.
Relationship between researcher and respondent - communication.
Follow research ethics guideline
THREE PARTIES THAT SHOULD BE GIVEN
ATTENTIONInformation source – especially employer.
Community – researcher should be honest and precise
Causes of problem:
1) Different Principles2) Personality3) Rights
RESEARCHER GUIDE • Permission from respondent • Do not used force • If using questionnaire-write in front. • Before interviews give explanation. • Details should be kept secret- names,
personal identification. • If personal identification have been identified,
it will give negative impacts in the future. • Control Data should be kept from others. • Identity and information should be separated. • Matters that can led to violence should be
IMPORTANT POINTS FOR RESEARCH ETHICS
Ethics-prepare one research guide.
Alert with the institutional rules.
Sensitive with issues such as moral, values, religion and community culture- have discussion with experienced staff and elders in the community.
• Full explanation about the research.• Risk and positive impact of the
research. • Volunteer participation. • Rights to back out any time. • Consent from : Employer, school and
individual. • Parameters for the details can be
CLASSIFIED• Details that expose respondent should
be classified or change. • To print classified information get
consent from respondent. • Consent react as agreement or trust
between respondent and researcher.
EFFECT• Risk to respondent should be avoid. • Positive effect should be much greater than
negative effect. • Effect to the community should be included. • Report between researcher and sample
should be analyzed to what extend classified information are being analyzed.
• Definition :
‘investigates a contemporary phenomenon within it’s real-life context, especially when the boundaries between phenomenon and context are not clearly evident”
The case as a phenomenon of some sort occurring in a bounded context. They graphically present it as a circle with a heart in the center. The heart is the focus of the study, while the circle defines the edge of the case (Miles and Huberman, 1994)
• Insight into the ‘real life’ of the respondents (Yin,1994).• Focus on discovery, insight and understanding from the
perspective of those being studied and offer greatest potential in contributing knowledge base on the area investigated (Merrian,1998)
• Humans are best suited for the tasks since they can use human sensibilities during interviews and observations, sensitively to non verbal context (Burns,1998)
• Aims to capture individual difference or unique variations from one program setting to another or one program experience to another (Patton,1990)
• Using multiple method, major strength and able to trace a chain of evidence (Burns,1994)
• Case study is more concern with the ‘process’ rather than ‘outcomes’
• Stress that process relates to ‘monitoring’ the context, discovering the treatment and providing immediate feedback.
To arrive at a comprehensive understanding of the group understanding
To develop general theoretical statements about regularities in social structure and process
SPECIAL FEATURES• Particularistic
Focus on a particular situation, events, program and phenomenon.Asking questions, situations or puzzling occurrences arising from everyday practice
• DescriptiveThe end product is rich, ‘thick’ descriptive of the phenomena understudy.
• HeuristicReader understanding about the phenomenon
STEPS TO BE TAKEN• PARTICULARISTIC
What should be done and not.
• DESCRIPTIVE. Explain problems. Collect information. Look for differences.
• HEURISTICExplain reasons. Why need to change. Discussion. Values.
STRENGHT• Understand outcome from the method used
(fieldwork) not estimating.• Definition through understanding. • Much more concrete-understanding through
real life experience. • Close relationship between respondent and
researcher. • Description of research population.
WEAKNESES• When expose with a lot of real problems –
more time needed. • Always make full evaluation. • As an instrument – researcher weaknesses
influences data. • Expose to “biasness”• Small amount of respondents always being
TYPES CASE STUDYHISTORICAL
THEORITICAL FRAMEWORK• MERRIAM (1998)
“a structure, the scaffolding, the frame of your study”• Ways to develop
Disciplinary orientation-concept, vocabulary and theory (lens which you view your world)Lead to your curiosity, puzzles, question that will arise. Through past research-relevant with area of interests.The framework in turn generate ‘problem’ of the study, specific research questions, data collection, analysis techniques and how you would interpret your findings.The technique and literature help to establish parameters for the research study. It determines how the problem and purpose are reshaped.
SAMPLE-PURPOSIVETraits to be researched.
GROUNDED THEORY• History
First described by Glaser and Strauss in 1976Later developed by Glaser in 1978 and expounded in detail by Strauss in 1987
• DEFINITIONThe discovery and conceptualization of the processes under study were derived, and they closely linked the data with the theory (Strauss and Corbin, 1990)“…inductively derived from the study of the phenomenon it represents. That is, discovered, developed, and provisionally verified through systematic data collection and analysis of data pertaining to that phenomenon. Therefore, data collection, analysis, and theory should stand in reciprocal relationship with each other. One does not begin with theory, then prove it. Rather, one begins with an area of study and what is relevant to that area is allowed to emerge” (Strauss and Corbin, 1990)
• A general strategy for designing, conducting, analyzing and theorizing.
• Actors viewpoints for understanding interaction, process and social change (Hummersley & Atkinson)
Ways for Grounded Theory To Contribute For a
Research• Theory to reality• Relationship between situation, meaning and
action. • Need for research area and understand what
happened. • Different experience background and constantly
changing. • Individual role in determining the path for their life. • Need for change in complex life.
Constant Comparative Method
• Knowing the categories, collect similarity, differences produced new categories.
• Compurgation between human group, situation and time.
Process In Building Grounded Theory
• Research Methodology• Data gathering• Data arrangement• Analysis data• Differences in past research
Connection with 4 Main Points :
Building validityInternal validity-establishing causal relationshipExternal validity-truth value/findings can be generalizedReliability-procedures can be repeated
Interrelated Process To Build Grounded Theory
• Step 1Design Research Plan Design Research Research Main Question Choose a Case
STEP 2 : Data Gathering
• Used ‘multiple data sources’• Triangulation• Qualitative and quantitative
DEFINISI ETHNOGRAHPICSpardley (1980) : Complex meaning to organize their behavior, understand themselves and others and make sense out of the world in which they live. These system constitute their culture.
Studying culture must deal with three fundamental aspects of human experience : what people do, what people know and the things people who have learned to see, hear speak, think and act in ways that are different.
Hammersley & Akinson (1995) : rather than studying people, ethnography involves learning from people.
STRENGHTSociety-social and cultural diversity results in cultural differences.
Able to capture the social reality before formulating appropriate research inquiry.
Research is free to ‘muddle around’ and address the problem that is interesting and worthy to sustain attention.
Able to understand society as it is, rather then what they think it is, might, should must be.
Main contribution – his commitment to understand and convey how it is ‘to walk in someone else’s shoes’ and ‘tell it like it is’.
Credibility depends heavily on the ability of the researcher to collect information from the insider’s perspective (emic) and also external scientific perspective (etic).
Able to take the larger context into account.
Fieldwork-flexible in it’s planning, sensitive to contextual clues and comfortable to change.
Significant Aspect (Berg 1989)
Distinction made between micro and macro ethnography.
Macro ethnography : describe the entire way of life of s group.
Micro ethnography : focuses on a particular individual in a larger setting.
The contribution of both provide a complete picture of a case investigated.
Collecting data : starts with broad descriptive observations, overview of social situation and what goes on there.
Making records : field notes, photograph.
Analyzing : do not wait for large amount of data.
Go to the field to discover question.
Formulating Problems• Initial phase : broadly defined research interests.• 2’nd phase : Reformulation, idea starts to come
into focus.• 3 rd phase : progressive focusing
Main Elements to focus on :• Who• The setting• The purpose• The social behavior• Frequency and Duration
Strategies In Field Observation
Complete participation : secret observation and full participation.
Complete observer : remove all interaction, one way mirror.
Observer as participants : identity known but remain as ‘stranger’
Participant as observer : fieldworker closely involved and identified as ‘actor’
ReliabilityCan the study be repeated
Can two or more people have similar interpretations by using the categories and procedures used
How to achieve it ?
Outline the reasons and major question to address
Identify the bias statements and assumptions
Systematic data gathering procedures and record the details location and tine
ValidityQuestion: Can it really measure?Does it really represent other individuals?
Ways To Achieve It:Long duration gives a real picture.
Interview gives a lot of information.
Observation strengthens data.
Self-monitoring is very important.
Writing a ReportFocus and purpose of the study
Research and model or design
Context and setting
Experience and role
Data collection strategies
Techniques used to analyze data
Findings, interpretation and applications
Step 3: Protocol Used multiple data collection methodDocument, Reports, Paper articles
Steps 4 : Data AnalysisCollect and analyze in the nearest time.
Maintain flexibility-open minded.
Step 5 : Data Ordering
Arranging events chronologicallyAllows examination of processes
Step 6 : Phases of Data Analysis
CODING : DEFINITION… represents the operations by which data are broken down, conception, ideas and put back together in new ways. It is the central process by which theories are built from data.
Open Coding : Labeling and categorizing of phenomena into categories or themes (comparative method)
Axial Coding : Connections-develops the sub-categories
Selective Coding- Integration to develop initial theoretical framework.
Writing memos : to keep tracks
3 types of memo
Code Memos : open coding – focus on conceptual labeling
Theoretical Memo : axial and selective coding-focus on paradigm features and indications of process
Operational Memos : direction evolving research design
Step 7: Theoretical Sampling
Definition : ‘The process of data collection for generating theory whereby the analyst jointly collects, codes and analyses his data and decides what data to collect next and where to find them, in order to develop his theory as it emerges.‘Accordingly, unlike the sampling done in quantitative investigations, theoretical sampling cannot be planned before embarking on a ground theory study. The specific sampling decisions evolve during the research process itself’ (Glaser and Strauss, 1967)Choose a case and decide on the amount of sample throughout the research in the process to build research focus. Literal and theoretical replication across cases
Step 8 : Reading Closure
Theoretical saturation when possible
Definition : “…no additional data are being found whereby the (researcher) can develop properties of the categories. As he sees similar instances over an over again, the researcher becomes empirically confident that a category is saturated…when one category is saturated, nothing remains but to go to new groups for data on other categories, and attempts to saturate these categories also” (Strauss and Colbin, 1990)
Step 9 : Compare The Emerging Theory
Comparisons with conflicting
Action ResearchDefinition (Elliot, 1991)“Is about improving practice rather than producing knowledge”
Kemis (1980)“The study of a social situation with a view to improve the quality of action within it”
(Kurt Lewin Model : Spiral of Cycles)“The basic cycle of activities is identifying a general idea, reconnaissance, general planning, developing the first action step, implementing the first action step, evaluation, revising the general plan.
From this basic cycle the researcher then spiral into developing the second action step, implementation, evaluation, revising general plan, developing the third action step, implementation, evaluation and so on.
“Action researches are intent on describing, implementing and explaining events (enquiry) while they seek to change their (action) for the better (purpose)
Bring about improvement in practice
Improvement always associated with advancement of knowledge
Action is the key feature and is worthwhile demonstrated
TWO MAJOR QUESTIONHow can I improve the quality of my practice here?
What is happening here?
Action as an integral part of the research process.
Focused by the researcher professional value rather than methodological considerations.
Necessarily insider research, in the sense of practitioners researching their own professional actions.
PROCESA commitment to educational improvement
An intervention in personal practice to bring about improvement.
A special kind of research questionHow can I improve
my personal practice?my understanding of this?the wiser situation?
Putting the ‘I’ at the center of the research
How do ‘I’ fit into the research?I am the subject and object of the researchI take the responsibility of my own actions.
How do ‘I’ fit into the action…by seeing my own practice as the central focus of my research through critical reflection of self study. By encouraging others to participate in a negotiated definition of shared practices…respect humanity, open to argument, willing to accept others, owing own mistake, standing on ground when principles are at stake…
What kind of action ?
INFORMED ACTION… reduced personal biasness
COMMITED ACTION… stems from strong personality
INTENTION ACTION… implementing plans, monitoring the action and evaluating it are necessary aspects of the process
Systematic monitoring to generate valid data
Important outcomes are the changes in the researchers understanding of their professional that lead to new insights
New data will lead to changes and act as evidence
A concrete plan is needed
Providing authentic (asli) descriptions of actionFactual accounts…based on transcripts of conversations, interviews and meetings.Subjective accounts…description from observations, personal reflections or diariesFictionalized (khayal) accounts… data that preserve anonymity of participants.
Explaining the action ….…identifying possible meanings
…theorizing…constructing models…linking with other work…making the description ‘critical’In order to get an unbiased picture of your action research and its outcomes you need to involved other picture to cheek out your interpretations (Lomax, 1991)
Representing the action research…using self-reflection
…using dialogue and conversation…using narrative and story…using action research cycles and spirals…using drawings…using experiential techniques
Validating action research claims……making claims : How can I improve
…my personal practice?…my understanding of
this?…the wider situation?
…critically examining the claims against evidence
…involving others in making judgments
Some common pitfalls shown up at validation :Failure to separate description and explanation Failure to distinguish the actionConfuse between data and evidencePresentation of raw data rather than summarized data Failure to record the meetingFailure to treat the validation event
Making Public..best way of getting it validated
GROUP A group of people interact and have a common interest.
FOCUS Limit only to certain issues.
USAGE• Get the general background . • Build hypothesis.• Create new ideas.• Diagnose problems.• Learn/ Know how respondent
communicates. • Debate on past outcome.
ADVANTAGES• Produce fast result. • Direct communication with respondent. • Open to reactions. • Take action that promote relationship. • Flexible• Feel easy to communicate with illiterate. • Easy to understand.
“The facilitator has unobtrusive chameleon-like qualities, gently draws consumers into the process, deftly encourages them to interact with one another for optimum synergy, lets the intercourse flow naturally with a minimum of intervention, listens openly and deeply, uses silence well, plays back consumer statements in a distilling way which brings out more refined thoughts or explanation and remains completely non-authoritarian and non-judgmental.
Moderator Leadership Skill
Supportive LeadershipCare, easy to make friends, tolerant and fair.
Directive LeadershipTell respondent things that need to be done, guidelinse and set targets.
Participative LeadershipContact group, ask opinion, suggestion and give opportunity to group members to make decision.
Achievement-Oriented LeadershipSet challenging goals, aim for development, uphold ‘excellence’, capability to achieve the best.
Moderator BiasPersonal Bias -a) Follow own opinion. b) Without knowing to please the
respondent.c) To get along.
Problems‘experts’- clouded novicePalls-private talkIncorporate group members:
Explain honestly Ask to leave the group. Not being entertained.
To overcome sensitive Issues- inform respondent first.
Type of questions1.Main - Focus on the issues being researched.
2.Leading question - Discussion towards research
3.Testing question - Use respondent to test.
4.Steering question - Steer ideas to develop much more content.
5.Obtuse question - Uncomfortable question towards respondent. Ask other people.
6.Factual question - Accurate answer.
7.Feel question - Ask questions using individual feelings.
8.Anonymous question - Analyzing the situation again.
9.Shut up - Sometimes much better from asking.
Way to Carry Out Group Focus
1. Group alignment2. Style Interview
Directive – much more issues.Non-Directive – findings and much better group relation.
3. Tools to help 4. Relationship– sensitive/alert5. Observation – Should be told6. Ways to begin – Create situation, trust,
openess,and feel of belonging. Build rapport.7. Every one involvement-appreciate opinion and
worth it for success. Be alert for ‘non-verbal clues’: facial expression & gestures.
8. Time management.9. Debate Ideas.
DesignStep 1 - Recognize problem factors clearly
and agenda that will be discussed. Step 2 - Know your respondent. Explain
who can be called.Step 3 - Which moderator for the topics are
going to be discussed. Step 4 - Discussion guideline – list all the
topics that are going to be discussed. Step 5 - Recruit extra sample-takers . The
best amount is 6-12 people. Small – narrow. Big-Lack of control.
Step 6 - Manage group – relationship, time, place, equipment, inform the title first in general and give gratitude.
Step 7 - AnalysisStep 8 - Report writing
Limitation• Small group• Interaction-bias• Difficult to make decision• If guidelines are given, it will not