IxD Works Miniworkshop: Introduction

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  • From Ideas to Paper Prototypes: Hands-on Approaches for Early Stage Projects


    Valeria Gasik, Darja Tokranova

  • Valeria GasikM.Sc (HCI)Interaction DesignerFinland

    Darja TokranovaM.Sc (HCI)Freelance designerEstonia

    Katri TammsaarErasmus academic coordinatorEstonia

    Presenting today

  • Today

  • Interaction Design

    User-Centered Design

  • Idea UsersContext

    Concept1st prototype Reflection

  • Idea UsersContext

    Concept1st prototype Reflection

  • We are here

  • We are here Heading here

  • We are here Heading here

  • Goal todayTo find and understand the need and to outline the basic behavior.

  • Need?Goals?Behavior?

  • Interaction designers shape digital things

    for peoples use

  • Bret Victor - http://worrydream.com/ABriefRantOnTheFutureOfInteractionDesign/

  • Fits the problem poorly

    Fits the user poorly

    = dont do this

  • Fits the problem (very) well

    Fits the user(very) well

    A tool amplifies


  • Interaction designers shape digital things

    for peoples use

  • Fundamentallydifferent

    in their complexity

    when somethingis shown here

  • Doing things easily and with pleasure.

  • Useful Usable Desirable

    Doing things easily and with pleasure.

    User-Centered Design


  • Optimizing design based on how users can, want or need to use a solution.


    Doing things easily and with pleasure.

  • Somethingin between

  • Need?Goals?Behavior?

  • Vision

  • Reality

  • For whom?Users ( segments), sharing

    For what purpose?Needs, goals, abilities

    What?Idea, concept, prototype, product

    How?Brainstorming, designing, evaluating...

    Scope?Time, budget, team, effects...

    Products behavior

    Users behavior


  • Where to start?

  • UCD

    Example approaches


    PersonasScenariosUse CasesRequirements


    ConceptRapid prototypesWireframesInteractive demos


    TestingTask analysis FeedbackHeuristics

  • Learning about users, tasks andproduct

    Solving key problems through


    Testing and improving the



    PersonasScenariosUse CasesRequirements


    ConceptPaper prototypesWireframesHi-fi prototypes


    TestingTask analysis FeedbackHeuristics

    Example approaches

  • Research

    PersonasScenariosUse CasesRequirements


    ConceptPaper prototypesWireframesHi-fi prototypes


    TestingTask analysis FeedbackHeuristics

    Example approaches

  • Personas

  • We cant ask users to be with us all the time, thus we make

    informed generalizations.


  • Hes not Bob IRL

    Is it logical?

    Is it fun?

    Bob would not like that because...

  • Persona

    Describes imaginative users archetypes. Is based on the real research and observation. Shows user goals and their behavior patterns Helps to crack what and why questions

    1-2 personas is usually enough!

  • Bob

  • Fake persona

    Stereotype or a caricature Cant be backed up Factoids Fun is fun, but often useless

  • ResourcesPrimary Secondary

    Personal know-howStakeholdersOnline discussionsDomain expertsInformed guessesFeedbackSurveys

    Talking to people directly,Observing their behavior

  • What needs are we addressing?Lets make a persona together!

  • What user wants to achieve (do-goal)?Why (be-goal)?

    What is the current situation?Which frustrations are there at the moment?

    Is there only one user or many?Where and when the activity is taking place?Is the need or the activity reoccurring?

  • Example template

    Background Bio

    Name, (age), (role), occupation, education


    E.g. use environment or context, where the problem occurs and current solutions and frustrations.


    What are the users end goals (e.g. get a car)

    1-3 end goals


    E.g. computer skills, necessity vs fun, quality vs price.

  • Scenarios

  • What is happening?

  • Scenarios Stories that help understand interactions A cheap way to illustrate design solution

    from users (personas) point of view Tell users goals, motivations and actions At first lacks technical jargon

  • Watching a movie

    Bob selects a movie, inserts it in the device and sees it begin.

    Bob selects a movie and inserts it in the device. Advertisements appear, followed by settings. Bob selects movie to start.

  • Watching a movie

    Bob grabs a controller and logs out of another persons profile. He selects his account and sees various usage options. He opts for a movie application and sees a bookshelf-like selection of various titles. He picks a movie and sees detailed description. With his controller Bob makes the movie to begin.

  • Scenarios Vary in level of details Can be used use cases, user stories, testing... Great for considering common and alternative

    situations as well as accessibility issues

    What should this product do?If the user has no wi-fi, then ...

    ...while doing, user is interrupted

  • Scenarios

    without your solution present-based

    Focus is set on current practices that illustrate state of the art and the problem context

    with your solution future-based Focus on how problems could be addressed

    (without diving into much details).

  • Future based

    ...At the practice, Lisa starts the timer. Right after the

    game, she summarizes the score and adds extra training

    for two players...

  • How will the new solution work?Lets think of a high-level scenario

  • In what settings will the product be used?

    Is the persona frequently interrupted?

    With what other products will it be used?

    What primary activities does the persona need to perform to meet her goals?

    What is the expected end result of using the product?


  • NextFrom scenarios to paper prototypes

  • Resources Cooper, Alan, Reimann, R & Cronin, D. (2007) About Face 3: The essentials of interaction design. Wiley; ISBN:


    Hinton, Andrew. Personas and the Role of Documentation. (2008) http://boxesandarrows.com/personas-and-the-role-of-design-documentation/

    Accessibility in User-Centered Design http://www.uiaccess.com/accessucd/personas.html

    Hassenzahl, M. (2008). User Experience (UX): Towards and experiential perspective on product quality. http://www.researchgate.net/publication/238472807_User_experience_(UX)_Towards_an_experiential_perspective_on_product_quality/file/60b7d51bf4873231da.pdf

    What research methods could I use to create personas? http://ux.stackexchange.com/questions/21891/what-research-methods-can-i-use-to-create-personas

    Personas http://wiki.fluidproject.org/display/fluid/Persona+Categories

    Mike Cohn. http://www.mountaingoatsoftware.com/articles?tag=user%20stories

    Stellman & Green. Building better software. http://www.stellman-greene.com/2009/05/03/requirements-101-user-stories-vs-use-cases/

  • Images

    Men on a bench https://www.flickr.com/photos/scottrsmith/6194527237/sizes/l

    Woman at ATM https://www.flickr.com/photos/betsssssy/435300495/sizes/l

    User Case Map http://www.batimes.com/articles/user-stories-and-use-cases-dont-use-both.html

    Her-movie http://www.jcpe.tv/wp-content/uploads/2014/01/her_xlg.jpg

    Woman screaming http://www.pcrescuewirral.co.uk/uploads/images/mad-pc-user.jpg

    Girl using phone http://timebusinessblog.files.wordpress.com/2012/09/145670133.jpg?w=360&h=240&crop=1

    Obama girls http://media4.onsugar.com/files/2013/05/22/859/n/1922398/1a491e72c356ad1a_159848172.xxxlarge_2x/i/Malia-Sasha-Obama-got-silly-selfie-while-sitting.jpg

    Soccer practice http://whstherebellion.com/wp-content/uploads/2009/09/652346968_afbhm-l.jpg

    Woman on the bench: http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-dyncCTqpICs/T_XBEzgGf_I/AAAAAAAAEg8/MjOgjFJwT2Y/s1600/Blog+July+11th+2012+ABC+Zoom+in.JPG

    Statue http://cbsnews1.cbsistatic.com/hub/i/r/2012/01/20/0b64e26d-a644-11e2-a3f0-029118418759/thumbnail/620x350/5e3ed089979959e4be8a197144e564db/Corporate_Failure.jpg