iventions and discoveries

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  2. 2. Evidence of wheeled vehicles appears from the second half of the 4th millennium BC, near-simultaneously in Mesopotamia (Sumerian civilization), the Northern Caucasus (Maykop culture) and Central Europe, so that the question of which culture originally invented the wheeled vehicle is still unsolved. The earliest well-dated depiction of a wheeled vehicle (here a wagonfour wheels, two axles) is on the Bronocice pot, a c. 3500 3350 BC clay pot excavated in a Funnel beaker culture settlement in southern Poland. The oldest securely dated real wheel-axle combination, that from Stare Gamine near Ljubljana in Slovenia (Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel) is now dated in 2-limits to 3340-3030 cal BC, the axle to 3360-3045 cal BC
  3. 3. In China, the wheel was certainly present with the adoption of the chariot in c. 1200 BC,although Barbieri-Low argues for earlier Chinese wheeled vehicles, c. 2000 BC. Although they did not develop the wheel proper, the Olmec and certain other western hemisphere cultures seem to have approached it, as wheel-like worked stones have been found on objects identified as children's toys dating to about 1500 BC. It is thought that the primary obstacle to large-scale development of the wheel in the Western hemisphere was the absence of domesticated large animals which could be used to pull wheeled carriages.[citation needed] The closest relative of cattle present in Americas in pre-Columbian times, the American Bison, is difficult to domesticate and was never domesticated by Native Americans; several horse species existed until about 12,000 years ago, but ultimately went
  4. 4. built after an approximately 20-year battle,starting in 1983 when voters rejected a rail plan by referendum.A voter referendum in 1988 approved a 20-mile (32 km) light rail plan;however, Bob Lanier was elected mayor in 1992 and stopped the plan.In 1991, U.S. Rep. Tom DeLay, removed $65 million in This line was federal funding for the rail line.Then, Houston drew up a rail plan with entirely local funding. In 2001, several groups sued to stop construction, claiming that the METRO organization was a "private business" and subject to Houston City Charter provisions regulating business use of its streets; they obtained 2 temporary injunctions in January 2001, which were reversed by appeals court on March 9, 2001.
  5. 5. Pipelines exist for the transport of crude and refined petroleum, fuels - such as oil, natural gas and biofuels - and other fluids including sewage, slurry, water, and beer. Pipelines are useful for transporting water for drinking or irrigation over long distances when it needs to move over hills, or where canals or channels are poor choices due to considerations of evaporation, pollution, or environmental impact. Pneumatic tubes using compressed air can be used to transport solid capsules.
  6. 6. Since before 2000 BC, humans have utilized pesticides to protect their crops. The first known pesticide was elemental sulfur dusting used in ancient Sumer about 4,500 years ago in ancient Mesopotamia. The Rig Veda, which is about 4,000 years old, mentions the use of poisonous plants for pest control. By the 15th century, toxic chemicals such as arsenic, mercury, and lead were being applied to crops to kill pests. In the 17th century, nicotine sulfate was extracted from tobacco leaves for use as an insecticide. The 19th century saw the introduction of two more natural pesticides, pyrethrum, which is derived from chrysanthemums, and rotenone, which is derived from the roots of tropical vegetables.
  7. 7. Until the 1950s, arsenic-based pesticides were dominant. Paul Mller discovered that DDT was a very effective insecticide. Organochlorines such as DDT were dominant, but they were replaced in the U.S. by organophosphates and carbamates by 1975. Since then, pyrethrin compounds have become the dominant insecticide. Herbicides became common in the 1960s, led by "triazine and other nitrogen-based compounds, carboxylic acids such as 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and glyphosate".
  8. 8. Prior to the widespread use of chemical herbicides, cultural controls, such as altering soil pH, salinity, or fertility levels, were used to control weeds. Mechanical control (including tillage) was also (and still is) used to control weeds. Although research into chemical herbicides began in the early 20th century, the first major breakthrough was the result of research conducted in both the UK and the US during the Second World War into the potential use of agents as biological weapons. The first modern herbicide, 2,4-D, was first discovered and synthesized by W. G. Temple man at Imperial Chemical Industries. In 1940, he showed that "Growth substances applied appropriately would kill certain broad-leaved weeds in cereals without harming the crops." By 1941, his team succeeded in synthesizing the chemical. In the same year, Poorly in the US achieved this as well. Independently, a team under Jude Hirsch Quested, working at the Rothamsted Experimental Station made the same discovery.
  9. 9. In 1961, India was on the brink of mass famine. Norman Borlaug was invited to India by the adviser to the Indian minister of agriculture C. Subramanian. Despite bureaucratic hurdles imposed by India's grain monopolies, the Ford Foundation and Indian government collaborated to import wheat seed from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT). Punjab was selected by the Indian government to be the first site to try the new crops because of its reliable water supply and a history of agricultural success. India began its own Green Revolution program of plant breeding, irrigation development, and financing of agrochemicals. India soon adopted IR8 a semi- dwarf rice variety developed by the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) that could produce more grains of rice per plant when grown with certain fertilizers and irrigation.
  10. 10. In 1968, Indian agronomist S.K. De Data published his findings that IR8 rice yielded about 5 tons per hectare with no fertilizer, and almost 10 tons per hectare under optimal conditions. This was 10 times the yield of traditional rice.IR8 was a success throughout Asia, and dubbed the "Miracle Rice". IR8 was also developed into Semi-dwarf IR36. Wheat yields in developing countries, 1950 to 2004, kg/ha baseline 500. The steep rise in crop yields in the U.S. began in the 1940s. The percentage of growth was fastest in the early rapid growth stage. In developing countries maize yields are still rapidly rising. In the 1960s, rice yields in India were about two tons per hectare; by the mid-1990s, they had risen to six tons per hectare. In the 1970s, rice cost about $550 a ton; in 2001, it cost under $200 a tones. India became one of the world's most successful rice producers, and is now a major rice exporter, shipping nearly 4.5 million tons in 2006.
  11. 11. Scottish inventor Patrick Bell invented the reaper in 1826. The combine was invented in the United States by Hiram Moore in 1834, and early versions were pulled by horse or mule teams, ox. In 1835, Moore built a full-scale version and by 1839, over 50 acres of crops were harvested. By 1860, combine harvesters with a cutting width of several meters were used on American farms. In 1882, the Australian Hugh Victor McKay had a similar idea and developed the first commercial combine harvester in 1885, the Sunshine Harvester. Combines, some of them quite large, were drawn by mule or horse teams and used a bull wheel to provide power. Later, steam power was used, and George Stockton Berry integrated the combine with a steam engine using straw to heat the boiler.
  12. 12. Electronic computers, using either relays or valves, began to appear in the early 1940s. The electromechanical Zeus Z3, completed in 1941, was the world's first programmable computer, and by modern standards one of the first machines that could be considered a complete computing machine. Colossus, developed during the Second World War to decrypt German messages was the first electronic digital computer. Although it was programmable, it was not general-purpose, being designed to perform only a single task. It also lacked the ability to store its program in memory; programming was carried out using plugs and switches to alter the internal wiring. The first recognizably modern electronic digital stored-program computer was the Manchester Small-Scale Experimental Machine (SSEM), which ran its first program on 21 June 1948.
  13. 13. The era for modern age computing is said to be started in the year 1837 when Charles Babbage invented first programmable computer to perform mathematical calculations. Later digital computer known as ENIAC have evolved in 1948 that was very large in size and used vacuum tubes. In around 1960s vacuum tubes was replaced with semiconductors transistor and computers with these semiconductors are less expensive, consume low electricity and faster. In 70s integrated circuits was originated that lead to innovation of microprocessor by Intel and computers with ICs were highly reliable, fastest and less pricey. Finally, in 1980s home based personal computer (PCs) progressed. There are many other inventions like calculators performing mathematical operations and punch card machine for tabulating data led for discovery of computer. Charles Babbage has invented analytical engine in 1837 that was utilized in computational science. This engine was designed completely in 1933 which is a fusion of programmable and calculation giving rise to a computer used for multiple purposes.
  14. 14. Machine that could process 15-digit numbers and perform calculations for fourth order differences was endorsed by George Scheutz and Edward. One of the firms that made used of punch cards in computers to calculate 1890 census was US Ce