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  • Educating all students: Inclusive education strategies for college

    students and faculty.

    Ellen Berger Rainville OTD. OTR, FAOTA Jessica Otolo, OTSSpringfield College

    Springfield, MA

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  • Universal Design for Learning

    Access to education is not about teaching techniques, it is about attitude If a teacher believes that I can learn, I

    feel welcome in their classroom.

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  • According to the National Center for Education Statistics (2015),

    https://nces.ed.gov/datalab/tableslibrary/home.aspx

    Students report Undergraduate Graduate

    Health problems 3.5 10.7

    Hearing 7.0 13.0

    Mental illness/depression

    30.8 19.1

    Blindness/visual 3.6 5.3

    ADHD 21.8

    Orthopedic/mobility 9.3 16.6

    Learning disability 7.2 4.8

    Other 19.0 28.0

    Any disab 11.1 7.6

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  • Universal Design for Learning

    UDL fosters equity, access, safety, respect, creativity, collaboration, and learning.

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  • Universal design for learningDiversity

    Inclusion

    Equity

    Equality

    Education

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  • DiversityIndividual differences

    (e.g., personality, learning styles, and life experiences)

    group/social differences (e.g., race/ethnicity, class, gender, sexual orientation, country of origin, and ability as well as cultural, political, religious, or other affiliations).

    The Association of American Colleges and University. (Center for Urban Education, University of Southern California)

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  • The active, intentional, and ongoing engagement with diversityin the curriculum, in the co-curriculum, and in communities (intellectual, social, cultural, geographical) with which individuals might connect in ways that increase awareness, content knowledge, cognitive sophistication, and empathic understanding of the complex ways individuals interact within systems and institutions.

    The Association of American Colleges and University. (Center for Urban Education, University of Southern California)

    InclusionDo not copy without author's permission

  • EquityThe creation of opportunities for historically underrepresented

    populations to have equal access to and participate in educational programs that are capable of closing the achievement gaps in student success and completion.

    The Association of American Colleges and University. (Center for Urban Education, University of Southern California).

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  • A model forteaching

    and learning

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  • Teaching Methods:How We Teach

    Instructor: Know Thyself

    Course Content:What We Teach

    Students: Know Who They Are

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  • Universal Design for Learning:Definition:

    A scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that:

    (A) provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and

    Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (P.L.110-315)

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  • Universal Design for Learning:Definition:

    (B) reduces barriers in instruction,provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are limited English proficient.

    Higher Education Opportunity Act of 2008 (P.L.110-315)

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  • s

  • Universal Design or Accommodations ?there is an underlying connection between Universal Design principles and disability accommodations; both encourage accessibility to more diverse groups of people.

    While not as specific as individual student accommodations, it is likely that if the Universal Design principles are incorporated into the class, the need and request for specific accommodations from students with disabilities may decrease

    Ketterlin-Geller, L. & Johnstone, C. (2008). Accommodations and universal design: Supporting access to assessments in higher education. Journal of Postsecondary Education and Disability, 19(2), 163-171.

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  • Accommodations or UDL?Providing accommodations in higher education is grounded in the medical model of disability, in which a professional identifies an individuals functional deficits and prescribes adjustments that allow him or her to participate to some degree in the normal environment (pp. 3-4).

    For example, if the student with a disability receives an official accommodation for obtaining copies of lecture notes, then a faculty member in many instances may be more than willing to provide the accommodation. Burgstahler (2011) Burgstahler, S. (2011). Universal Design: Implications for Computing Education. Trans. Comput. Educ., 11(3), 117.

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  • Is giving a student lecture notes unfair?Do you think - if I make this accommodation for one student, then everyone else will want it too?

    Try reframing this more proactively, or universally. In fact, any student in the class could benefit from having copies of the lecture notes.

    If every student has the lecture notes, every student benefits.

    Accommodations or UDL?

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  • Mole, H (n.d.) Services for disabled students in US higher education: Implementing a social model approach. University of Leeds, UK.

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  • As part of a Masters Research Project, Occupational Therapy students were interviewed about

    their experiences with universal design and accommodations.

    Here are some of the things they said about the myths and realities of being a student who learns differently.

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  • Myths and Beliefs about Disabilities

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  • Myth #1- It is easy to understand what students need

    Professor- I understand what my students need.

    Students- My professor does not understand what I need.

    In reality. this is a process of continual, effortful negotiation. Good communication is essential.

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  • Myth #2- some Accommodations are not fairProfessor- It would be unfair if I did

    this for just one student and not the rest.

    Student- My professor wont give me an accommodation because he/she believes it is not fair to the rest of the students.

    Equality and equity (fairness) are not the same

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  • Myth # 3- If I tell my teachers, they will understand and helpProfessor- I cannot give you any accommodations

    unless you are documented through the disability services.

    Student- I do not want to disclose because I know I will be judged, I will be looked at differently and feel different from everyone else.

    Everyone can learn and UDL helps everyone access education

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  • The reality: How some students see it...Teachers are still in control. There is no collaboration. Education is not student centered

    Professors who did not understand learning disabilities had a harder time agreeing with and understanding what I was requesting so I had to fight for my needs and explain to them how I learned and what I needed from them.

    The teacher had to feel that the accommodation was their idea.

    The teacher acted like I was asking for an unfair advantage...for something I didnt really need.

    Sometimes, teachers say that if I just work harder, I will do better in school. That is just not true...

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  • There is still so much shame It helps when I do not feel like I am not alone

    I know that if I ask for accommodations or tell them about my disability they will think I am lazy or stupid

    I finally got the extended time I had to be brought to the front of the room to go into a separate room and I was completely humiliated by that so it was a very negative experience for me and I didn't want to get help because I was embarrassed and didn't want my disability to be acknowledged by everybody else.

    I was very ashamed of it for most of my life until I got to grad school and I met a lot of people with similar struggles so that's when I started opening up about it and talking about it but before that I kept everything inside to myself.

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  • I wish we could be more honest about this

    It was just a huge elephant in the room and everything became awkward.

    You do kinda feel alone because no one recognizes it and it's there and no one says anything about it being there...you feel like you do not belong where you are sitting.

    We are all very smart to get into this program but we are not all the same

    This has a huge effect on my self esteem and self efficacy.

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  • What works? The words of students: When the teacher is genuinely enthusiastic, positive and knowledgeable about

    their subject and they are interested in my learning.

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