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Inclusive education

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  • 1. Scenarios Manpreet (4 years old) has trouble settlingin at nursery because he gets very upsetand angry when the other children dontunderstand him Tariq (8 years old) is having real difficultywith reading but he seems very bright. Histeacher has just found out that he haddifficulty learning to talk.

2. Manisha (6 years old) got into trouble atschool today with a new teacher becauseshe didnt do what the teacher wanted butManisha didnt understand what theteacher meant. Harish (12) doesnt want to go to school,he doesnt seem to have any friends andhis parents think he is being bulliedbecause of his speech 3. ADDRESSING NEEDS OFCHILDREN WITH LANGUAGEDIFFICULTIES PRESENTED BY: Ms. GURKIRAT KAUR ASST. PROF.CHITKARA UNIVERSITY 4. Who is a Student with a Learning Disability?A student with a Learning Disabilityis a student with learningabilities who: falls within the range ofintellectual ability from averageto superior intelligence; is able to learn; has disabilities in one or more ofthe academic skills of reading,writing, spelling or mathematics. 5. Definition of Learning DisabilityLD Association of Ontario -Learning disabilities refers to a variety of disordersthat affect the acquisition, retention, understanding,organization or use of verbal and/or non-verbalinformation.The impairments are generally life-long.Some impairments may be noted during the pre-schoolyears by low academic achievement, while othersmay not become evident until much later. 6. Definition of Learning Disability cont .Learning disabilities range in severity and invariablyinterfere with the acquisition and use of one or moreof the following important skills: oral language (listening,speaking andunderstanding) reading (decoding and comprehension) written language (spelling and written expression) mathematics (computation and problem solving)Learning disabilities may also cause difficulties withorganizational skills, and social interaction. 7. Types of Learning Disabilities Dyslexia Central Auditory ProcessingA language and reading disability DisorderDifficulty processing and Dyscalculia remembering language-relatedProblems with arithmetic and math tasksconcepts Non-Verbal Learning DisordersTrouble with nonverbal cues, e.g., Dysgraphiabody language; poor coordination,A writing disorder resulting in clumsyillegibility Visual Perceptual/Visual Motor Dyspraxia (Sensory IntegrationDeficitReverses letters; cannot copyDisorder) accurately;Problems with motor coordination Language Disorders(Aphasia/Dysphasia)Trouble understanding spokenlanguage; poor readingcomprehension 8. Celebrities with dyslexia Tom Cruise Abhishek Bachchan Walt Disney Albert Einstein 9. Dyslexia involves difficulty with LANGUAGE Intelligence is not the problem There is an expected GAP betweentheir potential for learning and theirschool achievement 10. Individuals with dyslexia have a wide range of talents e.g. art, drama,entrepreneurial work etc. They often have difficulty organizing themselves Each dyslexic individual hasdifferent strengths and weaknesses Often other members of the familyhave dyslexia or similar difficulties 11. Identifying symptoms delay in talkingdifficulty with rhymes and rhythmdifficulty with remembering roteinformation, e.g. telephone no., namesdifficulty in remembering and following directions 12. Identifying symptomsdifficulty in learning letter /character symbols and their sounds unusual reading and writing errorsdifficulty in remembering words over timedifficulty in comprehension from textdifficulty in organizing ideas in text writing 13. Other commonfeaturesaccompanyingdyslexia: poor pencil grip and handwriting poor sense of time poor organization and ability to keep belongings poor study habits 14. What is Dyscalculia? Developmental Dyscalculia was first recognised by Dept for education and Skills 2001 and defined asa condition that affects the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. Dyscalculic learners may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers and have problems learning number facts and procedures. Even if they produce a correct answer or use a correct method they may do so mechanically and without confidence. 15. How do I recognise a child who hasDyscalculia? the child will be performing below teachersexpectations with no obvious reason such as illness This underachievement may manifest itself inspecifics such as knowing the value of numbers,realising 9 is 1 less that 10 They may have no understanding of why or what theresult means in a sum Do not be surprised that those who havedifficulties in decoding and understanding writtenwords and learning patterns involving symbols alsoexperience in learning facts, symbols which areused in Mathematics 16. Dyscalculic pupils may: Have sound technical reading skills but failto understand the mathematical language Difficulty linking mathematical words tonumerals Fails to remember the sequence ofcalculations in multi-step word problem Forget the formula Unable to read the time Difficulty with mathematical language ofmoney 17. Dyscalculic pupils: Are worried that theywork more slowly andincorrectly Lack confidence evenwhen they produce thecorrect answer Will adopt avoidancestrategies Dislike whole groupinteractive sessions 18. Bill GatesThomas EdisonBenjamin Franklin Albert Einstein 19. What is dyspraxia?An impairment or immaturity in the organisation of movementAssociated difficulties include: Language delay Perceptual difficulties Difficulties in planning and organising thought Self-esteem and emotional DifficultiesDaniel Radcliffe 20. How do we diagnose it? Usually presented by parents orteacher Often a history of poor motordevelopment e.g. late walking,falling over a lot, poor ballcatching skills etc Immature or poor drawingskills Difficulty with personal skillsespecially dressing, eating,toileting, shoe laces etc 21. How do we diagnose it? Disorganised constantly losingthings, forgettingequipment, cant followtimetables, forgetshomework Late learning motorskills such as riding abike 22. What is dysgraphia? A learning disability that affects writingabilities. Illegible handwriting Irregular and inconsistent letter formations Write legibly but very slowly and/or very small Ability to express ideas is interfered 23. Diagnosis of dysgraphia Dysgraphia cannot be diagnosed solely bylooking at handwriting samples. Not only the finished product is assessed, butalso the process (The International DyslexiaAssociation, 1996-2007). 24. Types of error letter substitution errors apple --> aBBel letter omission errors swing --> swin letter addition errors across -> acccross case substitution errors Queen --> quEEn crab--> craB; ladder --> laDDer;apple --> aBBel 25. What a TEACHER cando? 26. Accommodations for Dyslexia Timing/Scheduling more timeincompleting writtenwork / exams avoid closelypacked multipleexam sessions 27. Presentation Format Larger print with less crowding Questions and answers on samepage Directions in simple wording, childsunderstanding checked Test items read to student 28. Setting Testing in a smallseparate group Limit distractions 29. Response Format answers on large-spaced paper students answers verbally spelling etc requirements waived aids allowed e.g. dictionaries 30. Accommodations for Dyscalculia First step must be to identify astudents strengths and weaknesses,understand how a student learns best Use tutoring outside the classroom,with a one-on-one instructor 31. Use graph paper to organize work and ideas Use different approaches to memorizingmath facts, formulas, rules, etc. Encourage students to work hard to visualize math problems, draw pictures,look at diagrams, etc. 32. Encourage verbalizing while problem solving,this uses auditory skills which may be astrength Try to relate problems to real life experiences Use rhythm or music to help memorize mathfacts, etc. Monitor student progress on a frequent basisBE PATIENT 33. Accommodations forDyspraxia Multi-disciplinary approach to tackle learning, motorskills and self esteemInterventions to make life easier and learnskills which are difficult eg: List of equipment on inside of schoolbag or pencil case Practising ball skills, using cutlery, drawing, PC instead of handwriting 34. Accommodations for DYSGRAPHIA Use paper with raised lines for a sensory guide to staying within the lines. Try different pens and pencils to find one thats mostcomfortable. Practice writing letters and numbers in the air with big arm movements to improve motor memory of theseimportant shapes. Also practice letters and numbers with smaller hand or finger motions. Encourage proper grip, posture and paper positioning for writing. Its important to reinforce this early as itsdifficult for students to unlearn bad habits later on. Be patient and positive, encourage practice and praiseeffort - becoming a good writer takes time and practice. 35. A Student with a LANGUAGE DISABILITY is a Student with SPEACIAL ABILITIESwho can SUCCEED at ACADEMIC STUDY

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