1. Impact of Digital Storytelling on Technology Literacy By: Nicholas Graves
2. What is Digital Storytelling Digital Storytelling uses personal digital technology to combine a number of media into a coherent narrative. In their original form, digital stories include a voice-over narrative along with still images, music and titles. Digital stories usually include video footage, animations, and a variety of other mediums made possible by the latest technologies.
3. Why tell stories in school? Storytelling is an ancient pedagogical strategy used to make sense of the world and pass on values, knowledge, and beliefs (Coulter et. al. 2007). Many educational theorists have advocated for use of storytelling in conventional school settings. For example, Egan (1989) contends that information with high emotional colouring within a story is much more easily remembered by humans then a random list.
4. Why Use Digital Storytelling Digital storytelling not only helps students enhance their interpersonal skills, personal and social responsibility, basic literacy, but it develops their technological literacy (Czarnecki 2009). In order to be successful in the digital age, 21st century students need to develop technological literacy.
5. Why Use Digital Storytelling, continued In a 2005 interview, Jason Ohler (Professor of Educational Technology and International Educational Speaker) described how, with the use of digital storytelling, we are in between two very powerful models: storytelling, with its powerful ability to engage and teach students, and critical thinking, with its ability to turn students into thinking, reflective people, consumers, voters and that by blending the two, we can offer a powerful pedagogy. After presenting their own digital story, and viewing their peers, as well as critiquing their own work and that of others, students will gain confidence in their own abilities. This process also promotes social learning; by adding a group component, students are further introduced to collaborative brainstorming, designing, and executing of the digital story.
6. Case Study The Power of One http://www.alasmedia.net/SFETT//html_movie/Ican4/the_power_of_one.html Our first case study is a digital story that explains how each and every vote counts The Power of One is an approximately two-minute video narrated by student Angelina Garcia She illustrates, complements, or otherwise accompanies the words and the message of along with background music, with approximately 20 images. Most of these images are photographs are of the famous references to people she found on the internet, and a few screens consist just of typed words. The pace and rhythm of the piece varies, as does Angelinas speaking voice, in keeping with the background music and the message. In this digital story Angelina used no visual transitions, such as fading one screen into another. Instead, the images change precisely in time to the rhythm of the music, a technique which emphasizes the rhythmical and musical quality of the narration and the union of spoken word with the background music.
7. The Power of One, Contd The opening statement lasts for less than five seconds, but it introduces in a powerful fashion Angelinas argument and the significance of each event that recur and are developed throughout the story. This digital story is about the power of democracy, and in it Angelina tells her story through her artful use of implicity aesthetic techniques, but by explicitly connecting her arguments with historical icons, past and present. Through the blend of music, narration, and imagery, she is able to emphasize these famous figures by removing them from their particular historical contexts, and recontextualing them in her own creative universe of this digital story.
8. The Power of One, Contd The effective use of repetition used as interwoven between each narrative element, is a screenshot of the main theme of the story:
9. Recontextualization As Bauman & Briggs (1990) have argued, these instances of digital stories do not simply reflect social life but have the capacity to comment critically on it as well. Like other forms of verbal art, digital stories reposition both authors and the texts (words, images, music, voices) they appropriate and recontextualize during performance. Bauman & Briggs claim that if we consider what becomes of text once decontextualized, we recognize that decontextualization from one social context involves recontextualization in another (p.74).
10. Recontextualization of Power of One Angelinas use of text accompaniment with each historical photograph demonstrates this recontextualization process. For example, when the image of Adolf Hitler is juxtaposed with the accompanying text that states that one vote made him the leader of the Nazi party in Germany, the sudden significance of the story becomes immediately apparent. In reflecting on how digital stories as performative speech exemplify such recontextualizations, it is interesting to consider, as Bauman & Briggs (1990) do, what the recontextualized text brings.
11. Case Study Together http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sOJu-hpmXBg In our second case study of 17-year-old Brittany Lee Platt, we see a young woman trying to come to grips with her life as her parents go through a bitter divorce, her relationships and her sense of belonging. A lively and affectionate girl, Brittany found ways to reposition herself through digital storytelling both in relation to her family, and specifically her older brother Bill who she loves and admires Although we cannot categorize Brittany as an expert digital storyteller, certainly the finished product is one of a skilled writer possessing technological savvy who could assist her friends in creating digital stories.
12. Together, contd Through the experience of creating her digital story, Brittany was learning not only how to tell stories, but to rearticulate her sense of self in the process. In this way, these powerful multimedia pieces have helped authors like Brittany represent and reposition themselves.
13. Recontextualization of Together Brittanys use of photographs show how these digital storytellers engage in such recontextualization. For example, Brittanys decentering of the photograph of her divorced parents and the photos recentering within his own digital story is a symbol of what powerful figures with the right tools can do.
14. Case Studies Summary We have presented two case studies that illustrate how two individuals authored themselves by means of multimedia storytelling and the social and material resources of a school Both authors found ways to create a social world through multimedia composing in conjunction with music-making Each constructed an authority through a consciously artful and aesthetic use of language, image, and music. They each also constructed an authority through the recontextualization of images linked to words and music, and through a juxtaposition of those They also constructed supportive social relationships through their storytelling methods with famous figures and with family.
15. Conclusion The areas of literacy, digital technology, and storytelling, will continue to expand to create alternative learning spaces where individuals and groups can define and redefine themselves, through the creation of authoritative texts. The use of digital storytelling has dramatically emphasized the role of multimedia and multimodality as a powerful form of communication and means of representing self, family, community, and social worlds. We would argue that digital storytelling are one example of what constitutes an expected part of a persons literate repertoire. It is especially exciting that unlike traditional essays, digital stories, through their combination of image, music, sound, and text, seem to engage young communicators and to provide an especially potent way to perform a self.
16. References Agency for Instructional Technology. (2008). Technos interview with Jason Ohler. Retrieved from Agency for Instructional Technology: http://www.ait.net/technos/e-zine/interviews/jason_ohler.php Barrett, H. (2006). Researching and evaluating digital storytelling as a deep learning tool. In C. Crawford et al. (Eds.), Proceedings of Society for Information Technology & Teacher Education International Conference 2006. Chesapeake, VA: AACE. Bates & Poole. (2003). A framework for selecting and using technology. In Effective teaching with technology. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Bruner, J. (1990). Acts of meaning. Cambridge: Harvard University Press. Coulter, C., Michael, C., Poynor, L. (2007). Storytelling as pedagogy: An unexpected outcome of narrative inquiry. Curriculum Inquiry. 37:(2), 103-121. Czarnecki, K. (2009). How digital storytelling builds 21st century skills. Digital Storytelling in Practice. Chicago: Library Technology Reports. Egan, K. (1988). Teaching as storytelling: An alternative approach to teaching and the curriculum. London: Routledge. Lambert, J. (2009). Digital storytelling: Capturing lives, creating community. Berkeley CA: Digital Diner Press. Laird, R. (2011) Proceedings form SD43 Pro-D conference 2011. Technology and its effects on child development. Slides retrieved from http://slides.rosslaird.com/teachers.html5.html#slide18 Meadows, D. (2003). Digital storytelling:research-based practice new media. Visual Communication, 2(2) 189-193. Ohler, J. (2006). The world of digital storytelling. Educational Leadership, 63(4), 44-47. Ohler, J. (2008). Digital storytelling in the classroom. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. Robin, B. (2008) Digital storytelling: A powerful technology tool for the 21st century classroom. Theory Into Practice, 47(3), 220-228.
17. What is Podcasting? Are digital media files, both audio and video, that can be subscribed to and downloaded RSS (Really Simple Syndication) technology allows an aggregator program, like iTunes, to download and sort podcasts automatically The word comes from combing the word iPod, Apples almost ubiquitous Mp3 player, and broadcasting
18. Why Podcasting Podcasting is not simply a new way to distribute audio recordings; it is a form of expression, or interaction, of community building (Geoghegan and Klass, 2005) There are many uses of podcasts in an educational system but these purposes can be broken down into two overarching categories: Content delivery Knowledge Creation or Active Learning
19. Podcasts as Content Delivery Carvalho & Aguiar (2009) identified seven uses that can contribute to the learning process: 1. Assist auditory learners 2. Provide another channel for material review 3. Assist non-native speakers 4. Provide feedback to learners 5. Enable instructors to review lectures or lessons 6. Replace full classroom lectures or online sessions 7. Provide supplementary content
20. Examples of How Educational Podcasts Have Been Used Summarizations of key points, or quick snapshots of particular topic (Carvalho & Aguiar, 2009) Discussions between experts and students or educators on a particular topic (Carvalho & Aguiar, 2009) Textbook study guides, or commentaries on readings and/or authors (Salaberry, 2001) Skill based tutorials, such as the teaching of 3D modeling and software use (Salaberry, 2001) Foreign language lessons, particularly focused on pronunciation (Salaberry, 2001) Instructions, and or class announcements (Carvalho & Aguiar, 2009)
21. Podcast Length Length depends ultimately on purpose on content Scottish Council for Educational Technology (1994) reported that audio under 30 minutes is useful for conveying details and facts, and over 30 minutes is useful for general opinions and arguments There is no hard and firm rule then, but general consensus is that 5 15 minutes is appropriate length for content delivery podcasts (Chan et al., 2006; Geoghegan & Klass, 2005; Cebeci and Tekdal, 2006)
22. Individualized Content Podcasts are personal experiences that allow learners to engage with what they want when they want This increases learner efficacy and also increases the opportunities for learning by making the process more convenient Also podcasts can be used while engaging in the content, for example while learning about a concept learners can also be practicing the concept
23. Case Study Tourism and Podcasts Park ranger guided tours have occurred at Yosemite and Yellowstone national parks in the United Sates, since the 1860s The are considered to be one of the most effective ways to educate visitors on the natural, historical and cultural features of a park Guided tours have also been linked to increasing stewardship and pro-environmental behaviour Budget cuts have reduced the availability and variety of these tours however, and a more cost effective alternative (Myunghwa & Ulrike, 2012)
24. Case-Study cont. In 2006 the National Park Service began offering interpretive podcasts on historical, nature related or environmental topics By 2008, 18 national parks offered podcasts, providing hundreds of audio and video podcasts for park visitors A visitor to a park can now choose a tour based on their interest and experience it at their own pace
25. Research Podcasts are much more cost-effective than tours and they are able to be individualized in a way that tours cannot be However park ranger led tours are able to enhance stewardship and in general visitors experiences at the park Myunghwa Kang and Ulrike Gretzel, sought to determine the impact of podcasts on a visitors experience at a park Over ten days they surveyed and interviewed 221 participants and analyzed the results
26. Results In general social responses to a narrators voice led to enhanced experiences, of enjoyment and escape Individuals were most moved by podcasts with multiple narrators and by topics that they were able to choose A natural and conversational narrator was the most effective speaker tone and connected with the listener on the greatest level Podcasts also increased positive experiences and lead to greater intentions to engage in stewardship (Myunghwa & Ulrike, 2012)
27. Conclusions This study had several limitations, but it does strongly indicate that podcasts have the ability to influence actions and feelings It also indicates that individuality and choice play a significant role in the effectiveness of podcasts Finally it also indicated that podcasts tend to be most effective with multiple narrators in a conversational setting
28. User Driven Content Podcasts are most commonly used in delivering content, and as a result often just extend current pedagogy By refocusing podcasts they can be used as tools for user driven content In this way podcasts move learning from a passive experience to an active one