Greece’s Golden Age - Notes #4

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    06-Sep-2014

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<ul><li> Greeces Golden Age ArchitectureAcropolis= hill,centeroftheoriginalcity-state/polisPlaceforartisticcreations,temples,citadelParthenon =whitemarbletemplebuiltinhonorofAthenaFinestofGreekarchitecture,balancedproportionsstatueofAthenainsideColumns = 3orders.Doric-Ionic-Corinthian </li> <li> HistoryHerodotus = 1sthistorianofWesternworld.TraveledtoBabylonia,Phoenicia,Egypt.Writerandstoryteller.Wroteaboutpeopleandtheircountries.Toldifheheardaboutit(2nd)orsawit(primarysource)Westilllookathisworkforanswers.FatherofHistoryThucydides = WroteHistoryofthePeloponnesianWar.Believedhistorywascyclicalstudyingthepasthelpstounderstandhumannatureandnotrepeatmistakes.Workedtomakehistoryaccurateandfair. </li> <li> ArtGlorifiedhumanbeingsGod/Goddessesareidealbeauty,HumanqualitiesandactionsPrideinthecity-stateGlorytothePolisBeliefsinharmony,balance,order,&amp;moderationssearchforclarity,calmness,freedomfromdetailsnotnecessary.BeliefincombiningbeautyandusefulnessfunctionalandbeautydefinedpurposeandshapesPaintingMostarelostanddamaged.Bestareonvases.RedandBlackfigurepotteryMythologicalandeverydayevents </li> <li> Sculpture TwoofhistorysgreatestsculptorsMyron = TheDiscusThrowerPhidias = StatuesofAthenaAcropolis/Parthenon.ZeusatthetempleofOlympia(1ofthe7WondersofAncientWorld) </li> <li> Greek TheaterDrama = PlayscontainingactionordialogueandinvolvingconflictandemotionpoeticformTragedies = maincharactersstruggledagainstfateorevents.Outsideforces,defeatmaincharacter,heroespunishedfordisplayinghubris=thesinofprideSophocles = DefendedmanytraditionalGreekValues.Perfectexampleoftragedy=OedipusRex(killsdad,marriesmom,stabsoutowneyes)Euripides=Realist,questionedoldbeliefsandideas.TrojanWomenshowedpainofwar,unlikeearlieraccountsthatshowedwartobeadventurous,fullofhonor,courage,+heroes.Medea=Tragedyofrevenge.MedeaseeksrevengeonherunfaithfulhusbandJason. </li> <li> Aeschylus = writes80+playsOresteiaaboutAgamemnonsfamilyduringtheTrojanWarComedies = madefunofideasandpeopleAristophanes = FinestwriterofGreekComedy.Sharpwit.CloudsmakesfunofSocratesandEducation </li> <li> Philosophy= StudyofbasichumanquestionsandexistenceSocrates = Believededucationwaskeytopersonalgrowth.Nomemorizing.Trainedstudentstothinkforthemselvesquestioneverything=SocraticMethod.Publicofficialsdidnotlikehimquestioninggovtduringatimeofwar,sohewasaccusedofcorruptingyoungminds.Sentencedtodeath.Drinkshemlocktodie. </li> <li> Plato= StudentofSocrates.Wealthyaristocrat.RecordedSocratesideas.FoundedtheAcademyinAthenstoteachphilosophy.WrotedialoguescalledFormsandPerfectionalsoTheRepublicwhichdescribeshisideaofaperfectsocietyandgovt.Peopleshouldberuledbyasmallgroupofintelligentandeducatedpeople. </li> <li> Aristotle= Foundedschoolin335bc.WasastudentofPlato-taughtAlexandertheGreat.Believedeverythinghadtobestudiedlogically.Collectedfacts,organizedandcategorizedplantsandanimals.Believedallgovtscouldbegood.(M,A,O,T,D),butitdependedonthevalueoftheleadersinpower.WrotetheEthicsandPoeticsanalyzedGreekDrama. </li> <li> Math, Medicine, and ScienceEratosthenes= calculateddistancearoundearth.(Usedsunraysangletoearth)GreekMathematicianPythagoras = Philosopher.Explainedeverythingw/math. PythagoreanTheoremEuclid = Geometrictheoriesandstatements.FatherofGeometry.WritesElementsbasisformanyoftodaysgeometrytextbooks </li> <li> Medicine = beganembalmingbodies(Egypt)Hippocrates= FatherofMedicalScience.Wrote60-70medicalstudies.Observation,experiment,experience.BelieveddiseasesNOTpunishmentsfromgods.Bestcures=freshairandproperdiet.HippocraticOath=codeofethicsfordoctors. </li> <li> Aristarchus = Planetsmovedaroundsun.Lookedatsunandmoontocalculatelengthofyear.Failedtoconvinceothers.Archimedes = CalculatesPiratioofcircumferenceofacircletodiameter.Inventedthecompoundpulley,createdArchimedeswaterscrew.Usedmathandphysicsforpracticaluse. </li> <li> Archimedes Screw </li> </ul>

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