Greece session 4 Sparta & Athens

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This session contrasts the two best known Greek poleis on the eve of the fifth century BC.

Text of Greece session 4 Sparta & Athens

  • 1. ANCIENT GREECE iv-Sparta & Athens
  • 2. ANCIENT GREECE iv-Sparta & Athens
  • 3.
  • 4. PRINCIPAL TOPICSI. Sparta; The Way of WarII. (agg); School of the SoldierIII. Rise of StatismIV. Athens; The Light of ReasonV. Social HistoryVI. Democracy
  • 5. I. SPARTA THE WAY OF WAR
  • 6. Marble statue of a helmedI. SPARTA THE WAY OF WAR hoplite (5th century BC), Archological Museum of Sparta, Greece
  • 7. FIRST, A WORD ABOUT NAMESthe Greeks usually referred to these people as Lacedaemonians ( ) In Greek mythology, Lacedaemon was a son of Zeus by the nymph Taygete. He married Sparta, the daughter of Eurotas, by whom he became the father of Amyclas, Eurydice, and Asine. He was king of the country which he named after himself, naming the capital after his wife.the southern part of the Greek peninsula, which Sparta came to dominate wascalled the Peloponnesos (PAYloPOnaysose)this island of Pelops took its name from Pelops: in Greek mythology, Pelops (Greek , from pelios: dark; and ops: face, eye), was king of Pisa in the Peloponnesus. He was the founder of the House of Atreus through his son of that name.
  • 8. FIRST, A WORD ABOUT NAMES
  • 9. ORIGINSSpartans, like all Hellenes, claimed divine descent In Greek mythology, Lacedaemon was a son of Zeus by the nymph Taygete.Spartans, like most of the Peloponnesians, spoke Doric Greek, thus claimeddescent from the Dorian invadersbut they also claimed a link to the Achaeans through intermarriagetherefore their foundation mythology dripped testosterone, the conquerors ofHomers bronze-clad heroes
  • 10. Homer refers to Sparta as the hollow land
  • 11. Homer refers to Sparta as the hollow land Hollow Lacedaemon. Site of the Menelaion, the shrine to Helen and Menelaus constructed anciently in the Bronze Age city that stood on the hill of Therapne on the left bank of the Eurotas River overlooking the future site of Dorian Sparta. Across the valley the successive ridges of Mount Taygetus are in evidence.
  • 12. Homer refers to Sparta as the hollow landit lies between two mountain ranges,Taygetus (2407 m) and Parnon (1935 m)Sparta, the capital city lies on the right bankof the Eurotas riverto its west is Messenia, the first object ofSpartas wars of conquestits conquered peoples became the despisedand feared slaves, the helots
  • 13. SPARTAN SOCIETY or wariors the lite about 8,000 (Spartiates) or (Homoioi) (men only)Spartans or peers (Perioikoi) free, but no estimate artisans inferiors those who live available around 170,000 to state-owned degraded & (Heltes) 224,000 slaves oppressed Helots (total)
  • 14. SPARTIATEShad only two purposes in life: males-(1) train for war (2) wage war Spartiate females-(1) prepare for child birth (2) give birth to superior genetic stockall other normal economic pursuits were performed by the lower classes!their unusual family life, such as it was, will be described lateronly Spartiates could dwell in the city of Spartaeach family also had a kleros (an allotment of agricultural land outside the city)
  • 15. SPARTIATEShad only two purposes in life: males-(1) train for war (2) wage war Spartiate females-(1) prepare for child birth (2) give birth to superior genetic stockall other normal economic pursuits were performed by the lower classes!their unusual family life, such as it was, will be described lateronly Spartiates could dwell in the city of Spartaeach family also had a kleros (an allotment of agricultural land outside the city)
  • 16. PERIOIKOIfree but non-citizens of Laconia, they were part of the Dorian conquerorsof the five Dorian tribes, the Spartans rose to power. the other four tribesbecame the perioikoithey were the craftsmen and conducted what little trade there wasforbidden to live in Sparta, hence, they were were those who lived aroundthey could leave Lacedaimon to conduct businessthey had no political rights and could not marry Spartanstheir poleis formed a buffer around Sparta to keep out outside influences
  • 17. PERIOIKOIfree but non-citizens of Laconia, they were part of the Dorian conquerorsof the five Dorian tribes, the Spartans rose to power. the other four tribesbecame the perioikoithey were the craftsmen and conducted what little trade there wasforbidden to live in Sparta, hence, they were were those who lived aroundthey could leave Lacedaimon to conduct businessthey had no political rights and could not marry Spartanstheir poleis formed a buffer around Sparta to keep out outside influences
  • 18. HELOTSan unfree group, their status was already disputed in antiquity: according to Critias they were especially slaves according to Pollux, their status was between free men and slavestied to the land, they were agricultural labor, assigned to a particular klerosritually mistreated, humiliated and even slaughtered: every autumn, during thekrypteia, they could be killed by a Spartan citizen without fear of repercussionbastards, born of Helot women and Spartan fathers were (mothakes), asort of intermediate class. Boys served in the army in inferior roles. Girls wereexposed at birth to die
  • 19. MESSENIAN WARS -8 TH-5 TH C.casus belli-it was said the first battle was initiated because some Messenian men carried off some Spartanwomen praying at a temple. When the Messenians refused to return them, the Spartans invaded Messenia
  • 20. MESSENIAN WARS -8 TH-5 TH C.casus belli-it was said the first battle was initiated because some Messenian men carried off some Spartanwomen praying at a temple. When the Messenians refused to return them, the Spartans invaded Messenia
  • 21. MESSENIAN WARS -8 TH-5 TH C.casus belli-it was said the first battle was initiated because some Messenian men carried off some Spartanwomen praying at a temple. When the Messenians refused to return them, the Spartans invaded Messenia743-724 BC-First Messenian War: after the Dorian invasion the Spartans beganto subjugate the Achaeans living to the west in Messenia. Those Messenianswho didnt escape to other states were reduced to slavery and called helots685-668 BC-Second Messenian War: about forty years later the helots revoltedwith the aid of the Argives. These Achaeans also hated the Spartan Dorians.After many defeats the Spartans finally prevailed under the leadership of theirleader Tyrtaeus. This experience began the road to militarism