Getting Students to Think about Their Thinking Using ExamSoft Features

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Getting Students to Think about Their Thinking using ExamSoft Features Ashley Castleberry, PharmD, MAEdUniversity of Arkansas for Medical SciencesCollege of Pharmacy

Session Learning Outcomes:1) Define metacognition. 2) Explain the importance of metacognition in remediation. 3) Identify ExamSoft tools to measure student metacognition.4) Adapt metacognitive tools to help remediate students.

MetacognitionKnowledge and cognition about cognitive phenomenaThinking about thinkingHigher order cognition that regulates thinking3 Self-Assessment Skills

Flavell, J. H. (1979). Metacognition and cognitive monitoring: A new area of cognitive-developmental inquiry. American Psychologist, 34, 906 - 911.Jacobs J, Paris S. Children's Metacognition About Reading: issues in Definition, Measurement, and Instruction. Educ Psychol. 1987;22(3):255-78.3

Why is it so important?Guide learning strategiesImprove student performanceDevelopment of critical thinkingDevelopment life-long learning

Many accreditation standards require schools to develop and assess this skill in students

Self-directed learning can be defined as the consequence of allowing learners to make decisions about the information they want to experience . In a realistic learning situation, self-directed learning is difficult and within a formal education setting information selection is limited and governed by the instructor.

Self-regulation refers to the processes that enable individuals to guide their goal-directed activities over time. It is designed to maximize the long-term best interests of an individual, resulting in learners controlling their impulses and looking out for their well-being.

Working to improve metacognitive skills can help weak students (Schunk, 2008)Schunk DH. Learning theories: An educational perspective (5th edition). Columbus, OH: Merrill/Prentice-Hall, 2008.

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How can we enhance Metacognition?Teaching MethodsLearning ObjectivesActivate Prior KnowledgeOutline Studying ProcessChunking MaterialIncreasing DifficultyAssessment MethodsChecklists / RubricsAssessment Questionnaires

How can I use ExamSoft to encourage Metacognition in my Students? Exam ReviewsStrengths and Opportunities ReportStudent Notes and Feedback Box Rubrics

Exam ReviewsAs group or individualDelayed or immediateDelays in feedback can enhance learningRationalesReflectionWhat were your assumptions about this item?What are some alternative ways to approach this question?What piece of knowledge were you missing?

Great before the exam as well for practice questions!

Delays in feedback can enhance learning: Mullet HG, Butler AC, Verdin B, von Borries R, Marsh EJ. Delaying feedback promotes transfer of knowledge despite student preferences to receive feedback immediately. J Appl Res Mem Cogn. 2014;3(3):222-9.7

Pellissippi State Community College

Exam reviewsWhat does this look like in ExamSoft?

How can I use ExamSoft to encourage Metacognition in my Students? Exam ReviewsStrengths and Opportunities ReportStudent Notes and Feedback Box Rubrics

Useful categoriesConsistent mapping across coursesRequire reflectionWhat went well? Why?What can improve? How?Strengths and Opportunities Report

Useful categories: Think- Pair-Share17

Strengths & Opportunities ReportWhat does this look like in ExamSoft?

How can I use ExamSoft to encourage Metacognition in my Students? Exam ReviewsStrengths and Opportunities ReportStudent Notes and Feedback Box Rubrics

Student Notes & Feedback Box Allows monitoring of thinking during the examTool for reflection during exam reviewInstructor feedbackTool for marking possible incorrect items

Student Notes & Feedback Box What does this look like in ExamSoft?

Student View

Student View

Additional Feature: Export to Excel

How can I use ExamSoft to encourage Metacognition in my Students? Exam ReviewsStrengths and Opportunities ReportStudent Notes and Feedback Box Rubrics

RubricsCapture reflective exercisesDistribute rubric at assignment introductionTrain students how to use the rubricCarefully write descriptors for each levelUse and ReviseYourselfColleagueStudents

rubricsWhat does this look like in ExamSoft?

Therapeutics Recitation

Therapeutics Recitation

How can I use ExamSoft to encourage Metacognition in my Students? Exam ReviewsStrengths and Opportunities ReportStudent Notes and Feedback Box Rubrics

Metacognition toolkitAdam Persky, PhDMelissa Medina, EdDAshley Castleberry, PharmD, MAEd

Questions?

Ashley castleberryUniversity of Arkansas for Medical Sciences College of Pharmacyancastleberry@uams.edu

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