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Genetic Engineering

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  • Department:Environmental Science(5th semester)Presentation Of Biotechnology

  • Group:8Group Members

    SidraQayyom(11011561-048)Mussarah Saman(11011561-033)Memoona Syeda(11011561-027)Sultana jamil(11011561-012)


  • Genetic EngineeringGenetic engineering is the process of manually adding new DNA to an organism.Examples of genetically engineered organisms include: plants with resistance to some insects, plants that can tolerate herbicides crops with modified oil content

  • History The term "genetic engineering" was first coined by jack williamson in his science fiction novel Dragon's Island, published in 19511972 .Invention of Recombinant DNA1973..First Transgenic Organism1974..Transgenic Mouse

  • Basic ConceptsConcept 1: What is DNA? Concept 2: Why are proteins important? . Concept 3: How is DNA important in genetic engineering?

  • What is DNADNA is a molecule found in the nucleus of every cell and is made up of 4 subunits represented by the letters A, T, G, and C.

  • Why are proteins important? Proteins do the work in cells. They can be part of structures (such as cell walls, organelles, etc). They can regulate reactions that take place in the cell

  • How is DNA important in genetic engineering? DNA is a universal language, meaning the genetic code means the same thing in all organism. This characteristic is critical to the success of genetic engineering.

  • How is Genetic Engineering done? Genetic engineering, also called transformation, works by physically removing a gene from one organism and inserting it into another, giving it the ability to express the trait encoded by that gene.

  • Process

    First, find an organism that naturally contains the desired trait.

    2)The DNA is extracted from that organism. This is like taking out the entire cookbook

  • 3)The one desired gene (recipe) must be located and copied from thousands of genes that were extracted. This is called gene cloning.4)The gene may be modified slightly to work in a more desirable way once inside the recipient organism.

  • Conti..5) The new gene(s), called a transgene is delivered into cells of the recipient organism. This is called transformation. The most common transformation technique uses a bacteria that naturally genetically engineer plants with its own DNA.

  • 6) Once a transgenic organism has been created, traditional breeding is used to improve the characteristics of the final product. So genetic engineering does not eliminate the need for traditional breeding. It is simply a way to add new traits to the pool.

  • Comparison of genetic engi. to traditional breedingGenetic Engineering

    Genetic engineering manually moves genes from one organism to another.Genetic engineering, on the other hand, physically removes the genes from one organism and places them into the other.

    Tradional Breeding

    Traditional breeding moves genes through mating, or crossing.Breeding relies on the ability to mate two organisms to move genes, trait improvement is basically limited to those traits that already exist within that species.

  • Conti..

    Genetic Engineering

    Genetic engineering is more precise.Genetic engineering, allows for the movement of a single, or a few, genes.

    Tradional Breeding

    Breeding is also less precise than genetic engineering.In breeding, half of the genes from each parent are passed on to the offspring.

  • Slective BreedingBreed only those plants or animals with desirable traitsPeople have been using selective breeding for 1000s of years with farm crops and domesticated animals.

  • Recombinant DNA

    The ability to combine the DNA of one organism with the DNA of another organism.Recombinant DNA technology was first used in the 1970s with bacteria.

  • Applications Transgenic Organisms


  • Transgenic Organisms

    A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. Organisms that have been genetically modified include micro-organisms such as bacteria and yeast, insects, plants, fish, and mammals. ..

  • Creating Dolly

  • Stage 1Cell collected from a sheeps udder.

  • Stage 2Nucleus is removed from unfertilized egg of second sheep.

  • Stage 3Udder cell is inserted into egg with no nucleus.

  • Stage 4Insertion is successful.

  • Stage 5Electrical charge is supplied.

  • Stage 6Cells begin to divide.

  • Stages 7 & 8

  • Advantages Disease could be prevented by detecting people/plants/animals that are genetically prone to certain hereditary diseases, and preparing for the inevitable.

  • Animals and plants can be 'tailor made' to show desirable characteristics. Genes could also be manipulated in trees for example, to absorb more CO2 and reduce the threat of global warming.

  • Genetic Engineering could increase genetic diversity, and produce more variant alleles which could also be crossed over and implanted into otherIt is possible to alter the genetics of wheat plants to grow insulin

  • Disadvantages

    Nature is an extremely complex inter-related chain consisting of many species linked in the food chain. Some scientists believe that introducing genetically modified genes may have an irreversible effect with consequences yet unknown.

  • Genetic engineering borderlines on many moral issues, particularly involving religion, which questions whether man has the right to manipulate the laws and course of nature.

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