Department:Environmental Science(5th semester)Presentation Of
Genetic EngineeringGenetic engineering is the process of
manually adding new DNA to an organism.Examples of genetically
engineered organisms include: plants with resistance to some
insects, plants that can tolerate herbicides crops with modified
History The term "genetic engineering" was first coined by jack
williamson in his science fiction novel Dragon's Island, published
in 19511972 .Invention of Recombinant DNA1973..First Transgenic
Basic ConceptsConcept 1: What is DNA? Concept 2: Why are
proteins important? . Concept 3: How is DNA important in genetic
What is DNADNA is a molecule found in the nucleus of every cell
and is made up of 4 subunits represented by the letters A, T, G,
Why are proteins important? Proteins do the work in cells. They
can be part of structures (such as cell walls, organelles, etc).
They can regulate reactions that take place in the cell
How is DNA important in genetic engineering? DNA is a universal
language, meaning the genetic code means the same thing in all
organism. This characteristic is critical to the success of genetic
How is Genetic Engineering done? Genetic engineering, also
called transformation, works by physically removing a gene from one
organism and inserting it into another, giving it the ability to
express the trait encoded by that gene.
First, find an organism that naturally contains the desired
2)The DNA is extracted from that organism. This is like taking
out the entire cookbook
3)The one desired gene (recipe) must be located and copied from
thousands of genes that were extracted. This is called gene
cloning.4)The gene may be modified slightly to work in a more
desirable way once inside the recipient organism.
Conti..5) The new gene(s), called a transgene is delivered into
cells of the recipient organism. This is called transformation. The
most common transformation technique uses a bacteria that naturally
genetically engineer plants with its own DNA.
6) Once a transgenic organism has been created, traditional
breeding is used to improve the characteristics of the final
product. So genetic engineering does not eliminate the need for
traditional breeding. It is simply a way to add new traits to the
Comparison of genetic engi. to traditional breedingGenetic
Genetic engineering manually moves genes from one organism to
another.Genetic engineering, on the other hand, physically removes
the genes from one organism and places them into the other.
Traditional breeding moves genes through mating, or
crossing.Breeding relies on the ability to mate two organisms to
move genes, trait improvement is basically limited to those traits
that already exist within that species.
Genetic engineering is more precise.Genetic engineering, allows
for the movement of a single, or a few, genes.
Breeding is also less precise than genetic engineering.In
breeding, half of the genes from each parent are passed on to the
Slective BreedingBreed only those plants or animals with
desirable traitsPeople have been using selective breeding for 1000s
of years with farm crops and domesticated animals.
The ability to combine the DNA of one organism with the DNA of
another organism.Recombinant DNA technology was first used in the
1970s with bacteria.
Applications Transgenic Organisms
A genetically modified organism is an organism whose genetic
material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques.
Organisms that have been genetically modified include
micro-organisms such as bacteria and yeast, insects, plants, fish,
and mammals. ..
Stage 1Cell collected from a sheeps udder.
Stage 2Nucleus is removed from unfertilized egg of second
Stage 3Udder cell is inserted into egg with no nucleus.
Stage 4Insertion is successful.
Stage 5Electrical charge is supplied.
Stage 6Cells begin to divide.
Stages 7 & 8
Advantages Disease could be prevented by detecting
people/plants/animals that are genetically prone to certain
hereditary diseases, and preparing for the inevitable.
Animals and plants can be 'tailor made' to show desirable
characteristics. Genes could also be manipulated in trees for
example, to absorb more CO2 and reduce the threat of global
Genetic Engineering could increase genetic diversity, and
produce more variant alleles which could also be crossed over and
implanted into otherIt is possible to alter the genetics of wheat
plants to grow insulin
Nature is an extremely complex inter-related chain consisting of
many species linked in the food chain. Some scientists believe that
introducing genetically modified genes may have an irreversible
effect with consequences yet unknown.
Genetic engineering borderlines on many moral issues,
particularly involving religion, which questions whether man has
the right to manipulate the laws and course of nature.