# Gemi Pompaları ve Pompa Operasyonları

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Pompa tipleri, pompa uygulamaları ve operasyonları.Denizcilik ve Gemi Mühendisliği Sayfasıhttp://www.facebook.com/gemimuh

### Text of Gemi Pompaları ve Pompa Operasyonları

• 1. PUMPS Pumping Basics Centrifugal Pumps Positive Displacement Pumps

2. Pumping Basics

• PUMPSdeliverenergy(lb-ft, lb-in, joules. Etc.) to a givenvolume(cu.in., cc. gallon= 231 cu.in., liter= 1000cc)
• Pressureis usually thought of as force/area, but is also energy/volume (lb-in/in 3= lb/in 2or psi)
• Pressure x Flowis power: energy/vol x vol/time
• PSI x GPM= HP;Pascals x m 3 /sec = watts
• 1714

Energy Gain (ib-in) per unit volume(in 3 ) = lb/in 2(psi) 3. Pumping Basics

• HEAD ,energy per pound of liquid, commonlyexpressed in feetrepresenting the vertical height of a static column of liquid corresponding to the pressure of the fluid at the point in question
• In general, a liquid may have three kinds of energy. That is, the capacity to do work may be due to three factors:
• Potential Head- (energy of position, i.e. the work obtainable in dropping a vertical distance)Hzis directly measured in feet
• Static Pressure Head- (energy per pound due to pressure, i.e. the height to which a liquid can be raised by a given pressure)Hp (ft) = [PSI x 2.31] / SG
• Velocity Head- (kinetic energy per pound, i.e. the vertical distance a liquid would have to fall to acquire velocity V)Hv (ft) = V2 / 2g

2.31 ft H 2 O SG= 1 Gasoline SG= 0.7 Molasses SG= 1.5 1.54 ft 3.3 ft Velocity V H V =V 2 2g P 1 psi P 1 psi P 1 psi 4. Pumping Basics

• Total Pump Head , is the difference between the energy per lb on the discharge side vs. the suction side of a pump (expressed in feet)
• Z s &Z dare the elevation (ft) to the point of suction or discharge measure from thr datum plane (usually through the center of the pumps inlet port)
• H fs &H fdare the friction losses (in feet) in the direction of flow to/from the pump suction & discharge parts to the respective measuring points
• H =(P d P s)x 2.31/SG
• +(Z dZ s)
• +(V d 2V s 2)
• 2 g
• +(Hf d Hf s )

P s P d V s Z s Z d V d Hf s Hf d P P 5. Pump Types

• Kineticvs.Positive Displacement
• Centrifugalvs.Special Effect
• e.g., Jet Pump (Eductor)

6. Centrifugal(Radial Flow) IMPELLER EYE VOLUTE DISCHARGE SUCTION 7. (Radial)Centrifugal Pump Varieties

• Horizontal vs. Vertical
• Impeller construction
• Closed Impeller
• Semi-closed Impeller
• Open Impeller

• Single suction
• Multi-stage centrifugal pumps
• Double suction

9. Centrifugal Pump Characteristics PRESSURE(PSI) IDEAL ACTUAL PUMP CHARACTERISTIC SYSTEM CHARACTERISTIC SHUT-OFF HEAD (no flow) OPERATING POINT PUMP SYSTEM P FLOW(GPM) 10. Centrifugal Pump Characteristics PRESSURE(PSI) IDEAL ACTUAL PUMP CHARACTERISTIC SYSTEM CHARACTERISTIC SHUT-OFF HEAD (no flow) OPERATING POINT PUMP SYSTEM PUMP CHARACTERISTIC (higher RPM) SHUT-OFF HEAD (no flow) PUMP CHARACTERISTIC (lower RPM) P FLOW(GPM) 11. Pump Types

• Kinetic vs. Positive Displacement
• Reciprocatingvs. Rotary

Fixed volume pushed through eachstroke(recip) orrevolution(rotary) 12. Pos. Displ. Pump Characteristics PRESSURE(PSI) IDEAL ACTUAL PUMP CHARACTERISTIC SYSTEM CHARACTERISTIC OPERATING POINT PUMP SYSTEM P FLOW(GPM) 13. Pos. Displ. Pump Characteristics PRESSURE(PSI) IDEAL PUMP SYSTEM ACTUAL ? Relief Valve Relief Valve setting Through Pump Into System Recirc Recirc FLOW(GPM) P 14. Pos. Displ. Pump Characteristics PRESSURE(PSI) IDEAL PUMP SYSTEM ACTUAL Relief Valve Relief Valve setting Through Pump Recirc Increase Pump Speed FLOW(GPM) P 15. Reciprocating Pumps

• Single acting
• Double acting

one vol one vol two vols GPM= VOL (gal)x CYCLE/MIN GPM= 2xVOL (gal)x CYCLE/MIN one cycle one cycle 16. Reciprocating Pumps

• Simplex(one piston)
• Duplex

Steam End Liquid End Slide Valve Valve Chest

• single or double acting
• horizontal or vertical
• Triplex&Multiplex

Motor or Engine driven Multiple (3 or more) plungers (pistons)

• single or double acting
• horizontal or vertical
• single or double acting
• horizontal or vertical

17. Reciprocating Pumps

• Diaphragm Pump(air operatated)

DISCHARGE SUCTION SHUTTLE VALVE AIR SUPPLY EXHAUST 18. Rotary Pumps

• Gear Pump(external gear)
• (Internal)Gear Pump

=volumebetw adj teeth in 3 x#teeth x2 gears xRPM 231 in 3 /gal =GPM Driving Gear Driven Gear Driving Gear Driven Gear 19. Rotary Pumps

• Gear Pumps
• Lobe Pumps

One rotordoes notdrive the other Timing Gearsrequired Two, three, or more lobes possible: 2 lobes = rotating piston 20. Rotary Pumps

• Gear Pumps
• Lobe Pumps
• Screw Pumps
• Double-screw
• Double-end
• with Timing Gears
• Triple-screw
• Double-end
• without Timing Gears
• Double-screw
• Single-end
• without Timing Gears

21. Rotary Pumps

• Gear Pumps
• Lobe Pumps
• Screw Pumps
• Sliding Vane Pumps

22. Rotary Pumps

• Gear Pumps
• Lobe Pumps
• Screw Pumps
• Sliding Vane Pumps
• Liquid Piston Pump
• Circulatedwateracts as piston
• Air drawn in to create vacuum
• Used to prime centrifugal pump

23. Pumping Operations Starting Procedures Securing Procedures Sytem Operation 24. General Considerations

• Insure that suction side piping is lined up as intended. All suction connections should be checked to prevent drawing from some unintended location.
• Insure that discharge piping is lined up as intended. All discharge connections should be checked to prevent inadvertent discharge to an unintended space or overboard.
• Be familiar with normal operating parameters(pressures, temperatures, etc.) so that abnormalities may be detected promptly.

25. Centrifugal Pumps 26. Rotary (P.D.) Pumps 27. Steam Recip. Pumps SUPPLY EXHAUST DISCHARGE SUCTION STEAM END LIQUID END 28. Turbine Feed Pumps SUPPLY EXHAUST DISCHARGE SUCTION PRESS REG V. RECIRC DRAIN L.O. SYSTEM 29. Turbine Feed Pumps DRAIN DISCHARGE SUPPLY EXHAUST SUCTION PRESS REG V. SUCTION MAIN AUX RECIRC L.O. PUMP O/S TRIP 30. Turbine Feed Pumps SUPPLY PRESS REG V. L.O. SYSTEM SUCTION EXHAUST DISCHARGE RECIRC DRAIN 31. Turbine Feed Pumps SUPPLY PRESS REG V. L.O. supply Fd. Pump discharge pressure L.O. return PILOT VALVE OPERATING CYLINDER Press incr Press decr or relax spring or tighten spring Reach rod Operating piston drops decreasing steam flow Operating piston rises increasing steam flow

• With spring tension & pump pressure balanced, steam flow is constant
• Overspeed trip drops operating piston & shuts off steam flow

O/S Trip 32. Piping systems

• Example 1: (Generic) Fuel oil Transfer

33. Piping systems

• Fuel oil Transfer Manifold

SUCTION FILL 34. Piping systems

• Example 1: (Generic) Fuel oil Transfer

35. Piping systems

• Example 1: (Generic) Fuel oil Transfer

36. Piping systems

• Example 2: Bilge, Ballast, Fire Main

SEA CHESTS 37. Piping systems

• Bilge Manifolds
• Ballast Manifolds
• Low pressure in upper chamber draws bilge water up
• Stop-check prevents bilge flooding
• Ballasting or deballasting possible

38. Piping systems

• Example 2: Bilge, Ballast, Fire Main

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