Gardening with Native Plants - Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest

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Gardening with Native Plants - Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest

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  • 1.CONTENTSPreface 1Introduction/Implementation 2Design/Plants 3How To Use These Plant Lists6Plant List 17Urban Native Plant Community for SunPlant List 2 11Urban Native Plant Community for ShadePlant List 3 14Urban Native Plant Community forNarrow Planting AreasPlant List 4 17Grasses, Sedges and Rushes forUrban Native Plant CommunitiesPlant List 5 18Wetland and Riparian UrbanNative Plant CommunitiesPlant List 6 22Urban Native Plant ListPlant List 7 29Aggressive Native Plant ListAmelanchier alnifoliaManuals available through:ServiceberryCascade Biomes, Inc.P. O. Box 22419Seattle, WA 98122-0419Phone/Fax (206) 322-0528$6.00 per copy, plus $1.50 postage and handling (U. S. Funds)3rd Printing, Copyright 1997: Anderson & Ray, Inc., P.S. and Cascade Biomes, Inc.2nd Printing, Copyright 1996: Anderson & Ray, Inc., P.S. and Cascade Biomes, Inc.1st Printing, Copyright 1995: Anderson & Ray, Inc., P.S. and Cascade Biomes, Inc.ANDERSON & R AY, INC. P.S. Landscape Architects & Planners

2. Urban Native Plant CommunitiesPREFACE: This manual serves two purposes.First, it lists plants included in northwest nativeplant communities for urban areas in thePacific Northwest. Second, it suggests designguidelines for use in preparing landscape plansusing Pacific Northwest native plants. Thismanual does not give specific detailedinformation about individual plants, rather itassumes that the user has an understanding ofplant identification, ecology, and plantingprocedures. For information about plant forms,sizes, and colors, other resources should beconsulted. There are several very good sourcesof information about native plants, including:Gardening with Native Plants of the Pacific Northwest,by Arthur R. Kruckeberg; Plants of the PacificNorthwest Coast, by Pojar/Mackinnon, WaysideFlowers of the Pacific Northwest; by Dr. DeeStrickler, Hortus Northwest, A Pacific NorthwestPlant Directory & Journal; and Douglasii, anewsletter published by the Washington NativePlant Society. The Washington Native PlantSociety may be contacted by writing:Washington Native Plant SocietyP. O. Box 28690Seattle, WA 98118-8690Plant sketches for this manual are based onphotographs from Plants of the Pacific NorthwestCoast, by Pojar/Mackinnon.Oxalis oreganaRedwood SorrelA Manual of Native Plant Communities for Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest 1 3. Urban Native Plant CommunitiesINTRODUCTION: This manual containssubstitute a mix of successional communities at Mycorrhizae are anatomical structures resultingguidelines for the use of native plants in thethe time of installation. This mix of successionalfrom the symbiotic association between a plantplanning and creation of successful and plant communities represents a more natural root and a fungus. These fungi are the singleaesthetically pleasing urban landscape designs. plant pattern. Additionally, 0this design style most important organisms living in a symbioticFor this document, Pacific Northwest "native" also responds well to typical constraints of an relationship with living plants. Mycorrhizalplants are those species that were established in urban setting: utility infrastructure, narrow structures encourage and enhance plantthe region before European settlement. Theplanting strips, reflective heat from paved establishment. Mycorrhizal fungi must beplants selected for this document are endemic tosurfaces, etc. The designed successional native present in the soil for optimal sustained growthall areas from northern California to British plant communities described in this manualand transplantability of most native plants.Columbia and west of the coastal mountain include trees, shrubs, groundcovers, mosses and Virtually all undisturbed topsoils containranges. This manual suggests procedures for plant-fungi associations called mycorrhizae (Seemycorrhizal associations. The spores of the soilsuccessful native plant establishment based onDiagram 1). fungi needed to develop mycorrhizae willthe composition and dynamics of native plantcolonize most soils or soil mixes that have beencommunities. Assembling these groups of plantsin place for more than two growing seasons.into native plant communities (urban ecological Most native and ornamental plants will growplant communities) is the fundamental basis for well in mycorrhizal deficient soils as long as eachthis manual. All of the plants listed here areplants water, light, and nutrient requirementssuitable for cultivation by growers and nurseries.are met through irrigation, fertilization, and soilamendments. However, some native plants willPROCEDURES: Native plant community Rootsnot grow at all if mycorrhizal fungi are notsuccession in typical Northwest wilderness areaspresent.may require decades or even centuries tocomplete. Traditional urban landscape designs In our Pacific maritime climate, the summertypically represent late successional stages. drought period may last for several months orMycorrhizaeOvergrown plants will be removed and replaced filamentslonger. The native plants of this area haveby new members with similar requirements, developed a complex relationship withmaintaining the original landscape design. Othermycorrhizal fungi which prevents soil fromearlier successional plant communities arewicking water away from the roots of the hostgenerally discouraged, either chemically or plant. Mycorrhizal structures benefit nativethrough the use of plant-inhibiting mulches orplants primarily by surrounding and protectingsterile soil mixes. The alternative suggested inplant roots from desiccation and improving thethismanualistoplants ability to take up nutrients.Diagram 1 - MycorrhizaeA Manual of Native Plant Communities for Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest2 4. Urban Native Plant CommunitiesMycorrhizal structures can store and make inoculated soilis incorporatedinto interdependencies with other plants andavailable to native plants up to seven times thethetransplanting container, or 3) a liquid organisms. When plants are salvaged, thesemoisture that would otherwise be available. The mycorrhizal solution be applied to the soil at the relationships are severely impacted. Thus, it isfibrous root-like structure of mycorrhizae also time of planting. Native mosses, companion preferable to use nursery-grown plantseffectively extend the host plants rootplants, and pioneer plants, all of which provide a whenever possible. Long term plant survival ispenetration into the soil. In the urban living mulch, are also very important formore likely when container-grown plants areenvironment, mycorrhizal fungi are brought to a successful native plant establishment. These used.new planting site by: 1) inoculum on the plantsplants buffer the impact of rain on the soil, holdroots, 2) direct application to the planting soil atwater in a sponge-like fashion, slow run-off,DESIGN: Preparing a design is more subject-the site, or 3) bringing in salvaged soil from aminimize erosion, shield soil, plant roots, andive than the process of assembling the necessarynative soil site which already contains a variety small seedlings from the sun, and stabilize thelandscaping elements (including plants, soil,of mycorrhizal fungi. Container soil should beplant communitys microclimate, specifically water and supplemental nutrients) on site.inoculated at the time of propagation to ensure moderating it at the air-soil interface. Designing with native plants leaves plenty ofoptimal establishment of container grown nativeroom for individual artistic expression.plants. Inoculation is the least expensive way to Salvaged plants should be obtained only throughHowever, the process of native planting designensure that mycorrhizal organisms will be programs like King Countys Native Plant requires inspection of any nearby undisturbedtransported to the planting site. Plants areSalvage Program. Make sure any nursery which native plant com-munity. Existing woodlands,inoculated by dipping young plants in a water attempts to sell salvaged plants obtains themetc., yield many clues for plan composition, andsolution that contains mycorrhizal fungi spores.only through a recognized plant salvageplant community patterns that will be useful forThe cost for this method can be as low as program. Make sure the plant salvager digs and developing a landscape plan. Purposeful order in$10.00 per 5,000 plants.transplants in a manner which minimizes stress the design of a native plant community plan is ason the plants. Many plants are salvaged andimportant as functional considerations likeTo assure successful establishment of nativehandled improperly, and these cannot survive screening and buffering. To develop anplants, the installer must ensure that either:for long.attractive plan, the designer should consider that1) mycorrhizae are present in the soil; or 2) that the plant community will evolve over time. Thethe native plant communities receive the same (Exercise caution when using salvageddesigner, installer, client, and gardener shoulddegree of care (irrigation, soil amendments and northwest native plants) understand that parts of the new plantfertilizer) usually given to ornamental plants.community will thrive initially, while otherThe successful use of salvaged plants will requireNursery-grown plants thrive more readily thanportions of the design will change as the plantsthat: 1) a substantial amount of their original soilplants dug in the wild. Salvaged or dug plants adapt and adjust to site conditions. The guidingis taken up with the rootball, 2) mycorrhizae experience extreme shock when moved. In adesign principle for developing a native plantnatural setting plants will develop large root community is the clump-gap mosaic (seesystemsand important Diagram 2).A Manual of Native Plant Communities for Urban Areas of the Pacific Northwest3 5. Urban Native Plant Communitiessuccession (and native plant community communities over time. The following listedcomposition) can be steered by: 1)