Gardening with Native Plants - Boulder, Colorado

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Gardening with Native Plants - Boulder, Colorado

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  • 1.OK C LOSE OLY L Wildflowers of City of BouldersOpen Space andCity of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks 66 South Cherryvale Road Mountain Parks P.O. Box 791 Boulder, Colorado 80306 720.564.2000www.ci.boulder.co.us/openspace/Produced by the City of Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks staff.Illustrated by Hilary Forsyth.Written and designed by Erin Schaaf

2. Welcome to Boulder Open Space and Mountain Parks,IN D E Xhome to a wealth of spectacular and surprising wildflowers. InCommon Name (Scientific name) Family......................................................Pageaddition to being sources of joy, food, medicine, and materials forAlpine Penstemon (Penstemon glaber) Scrophulariaceae................................10humans, wildflowers are extremely important to wildlife and toAster (Aster spp.) Asteraceae..........................................................................12the land. This guide encourages you to actively experienceBergamot (Monarda fistulosa var. menthaefolia) Lamiaceae.............................10wildflowers and their roles in Open Space and Mountain Parks. Blanketflower (Gaillardia aristata) Asteraceae................................................9Collecting is prohibited; please take only photos and memories! Blazing Star (Liatris punctata) Asteraceae......................................................12 Plants are listed by beginning bloom time. Blue Flax (Adenolinum lewisii) Linaceae..............................................................2Next to this picture youll find at least onesuggested trail where the featured wildflowerThese activities can helpChokecherry (Padus virginiana ssp. melanocarpa) Rosaceae..............................4 you make your ownmay be found. Below the trail name is a Colorado Columbine (Aquilegia coerulea) Helleboraceae..............................8 wildflower discoveries.description of the plants typical habitat.Death Camas (Toxicoscordion venenosum) Melanthiaceae..................................7F E B R U A R Y Golden Banner (Thermopsis montana) Fabaceae........................................3Harebell (Campanula rotundifolia) Campanulaceae...........................................9Heart-leaved Arnica (Arnica cordifolia) Asteraceae........................................5Oregon grape prevents erosion on steep hillsides. Its Leafy Cinquefoil (Drymocallis fissa) Rosaceae....................................................8stems creep along the ground and grow roots along theway, binding the soil together. Lance-leaved Chiming Bells (Mertensia lanceolata) Boraginaceae..................3Larkspur (Delphinium nuttalianum) Helleboraceae............................................6Flagstaff Traildry open hillsides, rocky slopes, ponderosa Lupine (Lupinus argenteus) Fabaceae............................................................6pine forestsMariposa Lily (Calochortus gunnisonii) Calochortaceae...................................10These tiny flowers can be very fragrant. Stop Monument Plant (Frasera speciosa) Gentianaceae..........................................11and sniff. Check for berries later in the season. One-sided Penstemon (Penstemon secundiflorus) Scrophulariaceae................7Oregon GrapeMahonia repensOregon Grape (Mahonia repens) Berberidaceae................................................1Pasqueflower (Pulsatilla patens ssp. multifida) Ranunculaceae.........................1Prickly Pear (Opuntia macrorhiza) Cactaceae......................................................7Fuzzy hairs on pasqueflowers keep them warm,Sand Lily (Leucocrinum montanum) Liliaceae.....................................................2allowing them to bloom very early in spring. Afterblooming, a fluffy ball of seeds with feathery tailsSpring Beauty (Claytonia rosea) Portulacaceae...................................................2will appear.Stonecrop (Amerosedum lanceolatum) Crassulaceae.........................................11 McClintock and Gregory Canyon Trails Western Wallflower (Erysimum asperum) Brassicaceae.................................11 open slopes, gravely soilWild Geranium (Geranium caespitosum ssp. caespitosum) Geraniaceae............3 Pasqueflower leaves dont grow until after Wild Iris (Iris missouriensis) Iridaceae...................................................................4 the plant has gone to seed. Try coming back in a few weeks to see what they look Pasqueflower Yarrow (Achillea lanulosa) Asteraceae...............................................................5 like. Pulsatilla patens ssp. multifidaYucca (Yucca glauca) Agavaceae...........................................................................61 14 3. R E S O U R C E S FE B R U A R Y T O A P R I LBenedict, Audrey DeLella. 1991. A Sierra Club Naturalists Guide to theSouthern Rockies: The Rocky Mountain Regions of Southern Wyoming, Spring beauty is one of the earliest-bloomingColorado, and Northern New Mexico. San Francisco: Sierra Club flowers. A similar species also grows in forestsBooks.in the East.Boulder Mountain Parks - Natural and Cultural History. Available online atBluebell-Baird Trailwww.ci.boulder.co.us/bmp/history.htmstreamsides, moist grasslands,ponderosa pine forestsCelebrating Wildflowers Coloring Book. Available online atwww.nps.gov/plants/colorTake a look at the delicate pinklines on the flower petals.Celebrating Wildflowers: The National Wildflower Hotline. Available byThese guide insects to nectar,phone April-August at 1-800-354-4595. like runways. Spring BeautyClaytonia roseaCoffey, Timothy. 1993. The History and Folklore of North American Wildflowers. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.Colorado Native Plant Society, P.O. Box 200, Ft. Collins, CO 80522. Sand lilies survive the heat of summer byCushman, Ruth Carol, Stephen R. Jones, and Jim Knopf. 1993. Boulderdisappearing. They bloom early in spring, andCounty Nature Almanac: What to See, Where, and When. Boulder:all but the underground part of the plant diesPruett Publishing Company. soon after.Cutts, Gretchen S. 1976. Potions, Portions, Poisons: How Indians and PioneersEagle and Red Rocks TrailsUsed Wild Plants for Food and Medicine an Introduction. Greeley: open hillsides, disturbed or rockyPotions, Portions, Poisons.prairieThe Lady Bird Johnson Wildflower Center. Available online at Can you see how the flowers are www.wildflower.orgattached to the rest of the plant?Lanham, Url. 1974. The Enchanted Mesa: An Introduction to Its NaturalSand LilyHistory. Boulder: Pruett Publishing Company.Leucocrinum montanumMiller, Millie. 1980. Kinnikinnick: The Mountain Flower Book. Boulder: Johnson Publishing Company. Flax has been used for fiber since ancient times. Linen is made from flax stems cured in water.Pesman, M. Walter. 1992. Meet the Natives: The Amateurs Field Guide to Rocky Mountain Wildflowers, Trees & Shrubs. 9th ed. Denver: Denver Red Rocks, Marshall Mesa, Bluebell Mesa Trails Botanic Gardens, Roberts Rinehart Publishers.meadowsWeber, William A., and Ronald C. Wittmann. 1996. Colorado Flora: EasternFlax flowers open early in the morning and usually die by Slope. Revised edition. Niwot: University Press of Colorado. midday. Look for petals from past flowers on the groundaround a flax plant. Blue Flax Adenolinum lewisii 13 2 4. AP R I LJU L Y Golden banner forms pods like its relative, the garden pea. It is toxic to humans and many other animals,Asters are important food sources for caterpillars and butterflies. but caterpillars feed safely on it. Asters are a sure sign that fall, and the end of the wildflower season, is on its way.Chautauqua, Lower Towhee Trailsmeadows, roadsides, damp forestsGreen Mountain West Ridge Trailrocky slopes, meadowsIf you find a large patch of golden banner, it couldmean that the land has been overgrazed (domesticLook closely. Each flower is actually made up ofanimals avoid it because its poisonous, but will eat many tiny flowers. The yellow flowers in the centereverything else around it). Take a look around to are called disk flowers. Each one of the purple petalsGolden Banner see if that has happened here.represents a different ray flower. AsterThermopsis montana Aster spp.Lance-leaved chiming bells are survivors. They bloom Prescribed Burns for Wildflower Healthin early spring, living through snow and freezingtemperatures.For thousands of years, frequent fires on the plains shapedColorados plant communities and became essential to their health.Prescribed burns are conducted on Open Space and Mountain Parks Skunk Canyon Trail land to produce some of the positive effects of wildfire. Fire increases meadows, hillsides, open forests plant diversity, adds nutrients to the soil, and serves as a tool in thecontrol of invasive plants. These burns are planned and monitored very The flowers of chiming bells usually arent just carefully to make sure that they are as safe and effective as possible. blue. Look for other colors in the buds.Lance-leavedChiming BellsMertensia lanceolata The Blackfeet Indians named this plant crow-root becauseMost potted geraniums come from South Africa. Ourthey saw ravens and crows eating it in the fall. Butterflies feastnative geraniums flower year after year, making wonderfulon its nectar, too.additions to gardens.Marshall Mesa, Skunk Canyon TrailsMesa Traildry prairie, meadowsforests, meadows, hillsides, roadsidesThe scientific name contains the word punctata,Geranium comes from the Greek wordmeaning dotted. Look for tiny dots on the leaves.geranos, or crane. This plant is often calledcranesbill because of the shape of the seed pods.Wild GeraniumBlazing StarGeranium caespitosumLiatris punctatassp.caespitosum 3 12 5. J U N E T OJ U L Y M A YA monument plant in bloom is cause for celebration. Theseplants grow for up to 60 years, bloom once, and then die.Wild iris looks very much like its cultivated cousin. The Paiute and Shoshone Indians found it to be a cure forEnchanted Mesa Trail toothache. However, like many other medicinal plants,moist hillsides, meadow edges, pine forestswild iris can be poisonous.Take a look around this place. What did this Big Bluestem, Mesa Trailsmonument plant experience over the course of wet meadows, streamsidesa lifetime? What will life be like for one of itsseeds? Drink in that gorgeous color for a minute.Monument Plant Frasera speciosaWild Iris Iris missouriensisStonecrop can live in very dry places where other plantscant. Its succulent stems and leaves store water, andSpring Marches up the Mountainin times of drought stonecrop becomes dormant untilrain returns.Flowers bloom later at higher elevations, where snow meltsreluctantly and temperatures take longer to rise. When a flower stopsRangeview, Hogback Ridge Trails blooming in Boulder, it is often just reaching its peak in the high country.dry, rocky hillsides from the plains to alpineThat means you can follow your favorite flowers up the mountainsideand enjoy their presence even longer.Feel the waxy leaves, and take a close look atthe tiny, star-shaped flowers. StonecropAmerosedum lanceolatum Chokecherry feeds the foothills. Bears, coyotes, foxes, birds, butterflies, bees, chipmunks, squirrels, rabbits, and deer all depend on chokecherries for food.Mustard comes from the crushed seeds of plants closelyrelated to wallflowers. South Mesa Trailhead areashrublands, canyons,Tenderfoot Trailhillsides, streambanksponderosa pine forests, meadowsTake a close look at theWallflowers are often very fragrant. Look at allcherries. Chokecherry pitsof the variety in petal color on a single plant!may often be found insidescat (animal droppings).Western WallflowerLook for tent caterpillars in ChokecherryErysimum asperumthe branches.Padus virginiana ssp. melanocarpa 114 6. M A Y J U N E If you find one arnica plant, youll probably find several. In 1848 white settlers in Utah faced starvation after Like aspen, arnica spreads underground to form colonies crickets, drought, and frost destroyed their crops. The of many connected plants. Arnica has been usedUte Indians came to their aid by teaching them how medicinally for hundreds of years.to use this plant for food, and today it is Utahs state flower.E.M. Greenman TrailDouglas fir forests, meadows Chautauqua Meadow aspen forests, mountain meadows,Feel the fuzzy stems and leaves. Do the leaves mesa hillsideslook heart-shaped to you? These flowers are even more beautiful on the inside. Take a close look at all of theHeart-leaved Arnicacolors hidden there.Arnica cordifolia Mariposa Lily Calochortus gunnisonii You may have tasted bergamot before - the leaves ofFriend or Foe? Your Actions Decide European bergamot give Earl Gray tea its special flavor.You can help protect wildflowers. Take home pictures instead Butterflies and hummingbirds like how its flowers taste.of bouquets so that park wildflowers will produce seeds for the future,and park wildlife will have access to the food and habitat they need.Stay on designated trails to preserve areas with sensitive species. Also,Mesa Trailconsider joining the Open Space and Mountain Parks Native Plantponderosa pine forests, roadsides, meadowsConservation Volunteer Program to help us maintain our native plantgardens, battle invasive plants, and educate the public. Rub a leaf with your fingers, then smell them. Do you smell oregano, Earl Gray tea, or something different? Bergamot Monarda fistulosa var. menthaefolia Yarrow grows in both North America and Europe and has Penstemon is also called beardtongue because of the yellow been used medicinally by natives of both continents for hairs inside the flower. Pollen brushes off of visiting butterflies centuries. Achilles, a Greek hero, is supposed to haveand bees and becomes trapped on these hairs, allowing the flower used yarrow to heal the wounds of a soldier. Its scientific to produce seed. name honors him. Flagstaff Road widespreadgravely slopes, roadsides dry meadows, grasslands Look inside the flower to find the hairs that help in The leaves are very aromatic. Smell your fingerspollination. after rubbing the leaves. YarrowAlpine Penstemon Achillea lanulosa Penstemon glaber 5 10 7. J U N EMA Y Beautiful larkspur flowers have been used to kill lice. Native Americans and white settlers made a louse-killingHarebells bloom for a long time and provide food for deer, shampoo by mixing the seeds and flowers with soap.bears, pikas, elk, woodchucks, and butterflies.Towhee, Homestead TrailsMesa Trailhillsides, roadsides, forestsaspen forests, mountain meadows, dry mountainsidesSome have thought that the flowers resemble theThe harebell grows all over the Northern Hemisphere,spur on a larks foot. Delphinium in the scientificand is the bluebell of Scotland. Look carefully atname comes from the observation that the budswhat is inside the bell.look like tiny dolphins. If you were to name thisplant after its flowers appearance, what would you Harebell call it?LarkspurCampanula rotundifoliaDelphinium nuttallianum Lupines enrich the soil. Bacteria living o...

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