1. Fish Respiratory system 1- Fish Gills extract 02 dissolved in water. 2- Water enter through mouth ,then flows over gills then to outside. 3- Water pumping occurred by opening mouth and operculum while swimming. .
2. GILLS = BRANCH = THE GILLS : 1- Gill ARCH. 2- Gill Filaments. 2- Gill Rakers . 3- Branchial Arteries (Afferent and Efferent ). 4- Adductor and Abductor Muscles. The Gills two sets Four on each side of pharynx.
3. 1- Gill Filaments : Each Gill arch attached to it two Rows of Gill filaments . Two rows of filaments = Holobranch. One row = Hemibranch . So each Holobranch formed of two Hemibranch. Long thin gill filament called primary lamellae. Each primary lamellae has semilunar folds across their dorsal and ventral surfaces called secondary lamellae. 2- Gill Rakers : cartilaginous or bony tubercles on cranial aspect of gill arch prevent food particles from reaching respiratory components of gills. So save fish from suffocation.
4. Complete the following ?diagram =Title- 1 -2 -3 -4 2 4 3
5. Mechanism of respiration in fishes : 1- Oxygen taken by diffusion through thin membranes of gill secondary lamellae. 2- Blood and water move in opposite directions allow gas exchange and that called counter current mechanism.
6. ?Differ between gills of Bony and cartilaginous fishes
7. Fish cardiovascular system: 1- Fish Heart. 2- Fish Blood Circulation.
10. Afferent Branchial arteries carry non oxygenated blood .from Ventral Aorta to Gills Efferent Branchial arteries carry oxygenated blood from .Gills to Dorsal Aorta then to different parts of body
11. Labrynthine organ or Arborescent organ in Cat Fish caudal to Gill help it to Respirate oxygen .from air
12. Swim bladder (gas or air ) bladder: The organ of Buoyancy
13. :Swim bladder Is a blind sac present on dorsal aspect of body just ventral to vertebral column and .dorsal to gut .May be one chamber :Tilapia .Two chamber : carp
14. Physostomous fish the swim bladder is connected to gut by pneumatic duct. Physoclistous' = The connection with the gut is closed and no gas can be moved from the gut to the swim bladder, Gas exchange is through the capillaries Rete mirabile', and the membrane of the air bladder. The capillaries arranged in a counter-current system to facilitate the creation of high gas pressures within the swim bladder.
15. Methods of Reproduction :OVIPAROUS FISHES -1 )Demersal eggs. (fresh water fishes- 1 Eggs with adhesive membranes: stick to bottom and to each other Eggs with adhesive threads : cling to .plants and objects Non adhesive : Mouth brooding : eggs carried by parents in buccal cavity as in ).male tilapia (buccal incubation ).Pelagic eggs (sea water fishes- 2 Contain oil drops so suspend in water Egg cases or baskets.(coral reef - 3 ) :fisahes Horny cases produced by sharks and skates cling to rocks or coral , shape: box .like, flat, spiral
16. )fry escape into mouth of male (father )fry stored in mouth of male (father
17. Mouth Brooding
18. :OVOVIVIPAROUS- 2 .Fertilization internally- 1 Eggs have enough yolk to embryo - 2 .development ..In Electric rays and Dog fish shark- 3 :VIVIPAROUS- 3 .Fertilization internally- 1 .Mother has PLACENTA LIKE ORGAN- 2 ))..In SURF PERCH (ovary) and shark (( UUTTEERRUUSS- 3
19. FISH REPRODUCTIVE SYSTEM :)TESTIS : (MALE SEX ORGAN .TRIANGULAR FLAT CREAMY OR WHITE IN COLOR SITUATED IN COELOMIC CAVITY DORSOLATERAL TO .GUT .SUSPENDED BY MESORCHIUM ):OVARIES : ( FEMALE SEX ORGAN LONGITUDINAL ORGAN PINKISH IN IMMATURE AND .AMBER YELLOW IN MATURE .SUSPENDED BY MESOVARIUM
20. THE COPULATORY ORGANS .IN CHODROSTS : CLASPERS IN TELEOSTS: GENITAL PAPILLA ( projection form male .genital opening) to pour semen for fertilization
21. URINARY SYSTEM : THE KIDNEY In fishes kidney is Mixed Organ : Hematopoitec (blood forming) , .Endocrine and Excretory ).Located Retroperitoneal ( ventral to vertebral column Fish has : Cranial (Head ) kidney Hematopoitec and Caudal kidney ).(Excretory
22. Fish digestive system
23. Mouth Feeding during swimming forward Feeding at surface Feeding from Bottom
26. THE PHARYNX : .It form with oral cavity , the Oropharynx- 1 It contains Gill arches ,pharyngeal teeth occurred - 2 .in these arches The esophagus : .short tube- 1 separated from stomach by slight constriction- 2 .Histologically : not contain gastric glands- 3 The stomach : U or V shaped tube : Cardia = at which esophagus open. Pyloric opening = between it and intestine
27. :Pyloric Caeca Blind ending diverticula = Arise from distal part of pyloric region in stomach and cranial part of intestine. Their number 70 or more. Histologically resemble those of intestine rather than stomach.
28. :Intestine The intestine is a simple tube has nearly the .same diameter Short in Carnivores fishes and long in Herbivore .fishes Shape of intestinal mass may be straight .segmoid (s shaped) or coiled Following small intestine the Rectum . Rectum wider than it and contain rectal glands .Rectum ends in Cloaca in Chondrosts .as Anus in Teleosts
29. The liver Reddish brown in carnivores. Lighter brown in herbivores. In Tilapia forms with The Pancreas a compound organ named Hepatopancreas. Bilobed in common Unilobed in Salmon and Trout. Trilobed in mackerel. Its Bile Ducts fuse to form Gall Bladder containing greenish yellow bile.