- 1. Fire Ants and Crazy Ants! Dr. Paul R. NesterProgram
Specialist - IPMTexas AgriLife Extension ServiceTexas A&M
2. Tramp ant Tramp species have the following common features
that enable them to be highly successful invaders: Able to
hitchhike with human travel and establish colonies in newregions
all over the globe Are omnivores--they will eat almost anything Not
aggressive to same species from different nests. Aggressive to
other ant species Colonies with many queens, and many nests Will
nest under or in anything Disperse by budding (queens and a group
of workers separate fromthe colony and walk to a new site). 3.
Tramp antsExamples include: Fire Ant Rasberry Crazy Ant Argentine
Ant Rover Ant Big Headed Ant Pavement Ant 4. Aaa Basic Ant Anatomy
5. Aaa Red Imported Fire Ant 6. Lateral View Basic Ant
AnatomyHeadThoraxAbdomenSetaeAntenna Coxa PetioleFemur
ClypeusPostpetioleMandibule TibiaTarsumAcidopore antweb.org 7.
Basic Ant Anatomy HeadFuniculusEyeScape Club Antenna ClypeusFrontal
Mandibule antweb.org lobe 8. Basic Ant
AnatomyPetiole/postpelioleOne node Two nodes 9. Aaa Rasberry Crazy
Ant 10. Rasberry Crazy AntNylanderia sp. nr. pubens Look
forStanding macrosetae1)One node 2)Macrosetae 3)AcidoporeOne node
4)Scape 5)Femur 6)ReddishLong to brownscape7)~2-3 mmLong
FemurAcidopore: circle of hairsat tip of 0.5 mmabdomen J. Johnson -
TAMU 11. Rasberry Crazy AntNylanderia sp. nr. pubens J. Meyers-
TAMU 12. Aaa Similar Genera, Species 13. Black Crazy Ant
Paratrechina longicornisDifferences from RCALong scape1)Long scape
Long thorax, flattened 2)Long thorax3)Long femur4)Black, dark
brown5)Eyes bigger6)~2-3 mm Bigeyes Long scapeantweb.org 14.
Argentine AntLinepithema humileDifferences from RCA 1)Reduced #
setaeAbdomen narrow like 2)Deep depressionbetween 1-2 pair
oflegs3)Abdomen arrowshape4)Dark brown5)Thinner (body, legs)6)~3 mm
Pronotum7)Head triangulardepression antweb.organtweb.org 15.
Pyramid AntDorymyrmex flavusDifferences from
RCASpine-like1)Spine-like in propodeum2)Reduced # setae3)Mustache
on clypeus4)Long palps5)Orange6)~2 mm7)Head squaredPalpsMustache
16. 0.5 mm P. longicornis N. sp. nr. pubens L. humile D. flavus 17.
T. sessileN. sp. nr. pubens P. longicornisL. humileD. flavus 18.
Cover Box Red Imported Fire Ant Biology 19. Fire Ant Mating
FlightQueen Ant Laying Eggs:OvipositionWorker Ant Tending Larvae
20. Argentine Ant Life Cycle 21. Cover BoxRed Imported Fire
AntMound Dynamics 22. Floating Colonies 23. Cover BoxImpact of Fire
Ants 24. Biting and Stinging 25. Ants in Electrical Equipment 26.
Fire Ants Predation and the effect on Wildlife 27. Impact of Fire
Ants on our Quality of Life! 28. Integrated Pest Management IPM - a
strategy that focuses on long-term suppression of pests uses a
combination of control tactics minimizes pesticides negative impact
on people and the environment strives to be economical 29.
Definition of IPM Integrated Pest Management: Management of pest
populations using systems of complimenting control strategies that
maintain pest populations at levels that can be tolerated by humans
in terms of their economy, health, and/or quality of life 30.
Integrated Pest management Focuses on long-term suppression of
pests Proactive rather than reactive Uses a combination of control
tactics Minimizes pesticides negative impact on people and the
environment Strives to be economical 31. Early Use of IPM 1888:
First highlysuccessful classicalbiological
controlprogram:importation ofvedalia beetle tocontrol
cottony-cushion scale incitrus Photo by UC Davis. 32. Knowledge is
the key Knowing the pests biology and habits help in the selection
of control practices 33. Proper Identification Different pests have
different control strategies Important to properly identify by :
Collect sample ofdamaged item ordroppings Take a digital image
ofthe pest, damage ordroppings 34. Control Tactics Determine
control strategies to be used- Some examples: Cultural/Sanitation:
eliminating water sources and pest habitats, bed preparation, crop
rotation Mechanical/Physical: trapping, removal of infested
branches, hand picking Biological: introduce natural enemies
Chemical: use of pesticides 35. The IPM pyramidPesticides Physical
/ Mechanical Biological controls controls Cultural / Sanitation
Practices 36. Control Approaches Individual Mound
Treatments(Granules, Drenches, Dusts, Baits, Organics) Use contact
insecticides(synthetic pyrethroids, acephate, carbaryl, spinosad)
2-Step Method(Annually/semi-annually treat yard with bait, then
treatnuisance mounds with spot treatment) Use long residual
insecticides (fipronil, i.e., Over n Out, Top Choice) 37.
Individual Mound Treatments(Granules, Drenches, Dusts, Baits,
Organics) 38. Application of contact insecticide (fast acting) 39.
Two-Step Method - Least toxic, cost-effective method - Most
suitable for larger, fully-infested areas - Reduces surface runoff
water contamination Step 1: Relies on Step 2: Uses mound periodic
broadcast treatments to treat application of fire antnuisance ant
mounds, bait product(s)only 40. Long Residual (fipronil, e.g., Over
n Out, Top Choice) 41. Determining Fire Ant Mound DensitiesChoose
areas to be surveyed r Usually 4 areas will do 59 ft Count active
mounds within the 4, Area = r2 acre circlesTotal will be the #
mounds/acre acre circleUsually greater than 20 mounds per acre or
4-5 mounds/residential lawn needs treatment. Broadcast fire ant
bait recommended for > 20 fire ant moundsThis may vary depending
upon specific needs of landowner 42. Available Baits Active
ingredient Product name hydramethylnonAmdro Pro, Probait, Amdro,
MaxForce methopreneExtinguish pyriproxyfenEsteem, Distance
hydramethylnonExtinguish Plus, Amdro Firestrike+ methoprene
fenoxycarbAward indoxacarbAdvion, Spectracide (Once & Done)
spinosad Ortho, Green Light, Safer, Ferti-lome abamectin Clinch,
Varsity, Ascend fipronilMaxForce FC 43. Available Baits 44. Tips
for Applying Fire Ant BaitInsecticides BAIT MUST BE FRESH!
(Pleasant corn-like odor, NOT sour) Temperature must be between 70F
and 95F. Grass must be dry (Soil can be moist) No rain expected for
8 hours after application of bait Do Not mix bait with fertilizer
Do Not use push-type spreaders 45. Bait Applicators 46. Home
Remedies Product Effect, If AnyGasoline/Diesel NO! NO! NO! NO! NO!
Home Cleaning AgentsNO! NO! NO! NO! NO! Grits, Sugar, BakingMoves
the Mound/Not Soda, Flour, etc... deadly to ants Orange PeelsSame
as above Citrus Oil60% Kill Rate in tests Mistletoe Berries Joy,
Peace, Goodwill Toward ants ????? Others 47. Paratrechina nr
pubens,Rasberry Crazy Ant WorkerQueen and brood 48. Colony Multiple
queen (polygyne) Many nests (polydomas) Nests under any object
Foraging trails plentiful in summer during cooler part of day
Foraging indoors Displaces other ant species(?) 49. Argentine Ant
vs Rasberry Crazy AntWorkers Queen andworkers 50. Paratrechina
activity Under leaf debris Running on curb 51. Paratrechina
intensity 52. Aaaaaaaa So, where are they now? Rasberry crazy ants
have been found in localized spot infestations in southeast Houston
(Harris County), including Houston, Pasadena, Deer Park,
Friendswood, San Jacinto Port, Pearland, Seabrook, La Porte, East
Columbia and Montgomery. As of September 2009, localized
infestations have also been confirmed in areas of Bexar, Brazoria,
Fort Bend, Chambers, Galveston, Hardin, Harris, Jefferson, Jim
Hogg, Liberty, Montgomery, Orange, Walker and Wharton counties. New
infestations are suspected beyond these areas. 53.
2008Key2002200520062007 54. Montgomery Elementary School20774 Eva
Street Montgomery, TX 77356 Eva Street (Hwy 105)To Conroe, TX 55.
Aaaaaaaa Movement? RCA has the potential to spread well beyond its
current range in coastal Texas, to possibly include the southern
half of Texas and the southeastern U. S. RCA is a semi-tropical ant
and high populations may be limited by cooler weather conditions.
56. Aaaaaaaa Movement? These ants can be transported through
movement of almost any infested container or material. The movement
of garbage, yard debris, bags or loads of compost, potted plants or
bales of hay by car, truck, railroad or airplane can transport ant
colonies and result in new areas of infestation. 57. Aaaaaaaa
Concerns Foraging ants cover the ground and readily enter
structures. Are a nuisance and may affect home values in infested
neighborhoods. RCA have an affinity for electrical units and will
disable almost any electrical system by interfering with switches
and circuits including traffic signal boxes, computers and air
conditioners, leading to high repair costs and disruption of
electrical services. 58. Aaaaaaaa Concerns Due to the small size of
these ants, and their abilities to forage within structures, they
may have potential importance in medical facilities as carriers of
pathogens between patients the same way the Pharaoh ant (Monomorium
pharaonis) does. 59. Aaaaaaaa General Aesthetics 60. Aaaaaaaa
Structures 61. Aaaaaaaa Industry 62. Aaaaaaaa Landscapes 63.
AaaaaaaaWhat can you do? The best practice to prevent a Rasberry
crazy ant infestation is by being ant-aware. Report suspicious ant
problems, and have the ants identified by a specialist. Avoid
bringing ant-infested articles onto your property. Carefully
inspect new plant materials, mulch or soil brought onto you
property. 64. AaaaaaaaWhat can you do? If Rasberry crazy ants are
detected, practice good sanitization techniques by removing
potential nesting sites, such as piles of debris (mulch, wood etc.)
from around buildings, or stacks of debris from the property.
Reduce aphid and honey dew forming insects on vegetation next to
the structure, as the ants are attracted to this sugar source. 65.
AaaaaaaaWhat can be done? Use Termidor insecticide as a barrier
treatment on and near houses. This product is effective for several
weeks if applied. Phantom insecticide may be used indoors. Advance
Carpenter Ant bait manufactured by Whitmire is the bait preferred
by RCA. It can be applied out of doors around the house. Should be
applied early in season (more data needed). The number of
applications and exact rate is still being researched? 66. Aaaaaaaa
67. AaaaaaaaTermidor SC TreatmentCrisis Exemption Label 3 ft. up 10
ft. out 68. Aaaaaaaa Coverage Challenges 69. Coverage Challenges
70. Phantom Barrier Treatment Baseboards, cracks and crevices 71.
Aaaaaaaa http://urbanentomology.tamu.edu/ants/exotic_tx.cfm 72.
http://fireant.tamu.edu 73. http://fireant.tamu.edu 74.
http://www.extension.org 75. Aaaaaaaa This information was
developed on behalf of the Crazy Ant Task Force members from these
agencies andorganizations: Texas A&M University Department of
Entomology,Texas AgriLife Extension Service, and Research United
States Department of Agriculture Animal andPlant Health Inspection
Service, Plant Protection andQuarantine, and Agricultural Research
Service Texas Department of Agriculture Texas Department of
Transportation Texas Parks and Wildlife U.S. Fish and Wildlife
Texas Nursery and Landscape Association Budget Pest Control 76.
Questions [email protected] 77. Approximate
location of Rasberry crazy ant August 2008