Fabulous fruits 2014

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Lecture on edible California native fruits given as part of the native plants gardening series 'Out of the Wilds and Into your Garden' - 2014

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<ul><li> 1. Out of the Wilds and Into Your Garden Project SOUND Gardening with California Native Plants in Western L.A. County Project SOUND 2014 (our 10th year) </li></ul><p> 2. Project SOUND Fabulous Fruits: California native plants with edible fruits C.M. Vadheim and T. Drake CSUDH &amp; Madrona Marsh Preserve Madrona Marsh Preserve April 5 &amp; 8, 2014 3. 2014: Bringing Nature Home - Lessons from Gardening Traditions Worldwide Project SOUND A few lessons from the gardens of France http://www.lelude.com/en/jardins.php 4. Well also see how Moroccan gardens incorporate fruit trees Project SOUND http://www.darnanka.com/en/swimmingpool-garden.php 5. What do most people think of when they think of fruit trees? Project SOUND http://www.treemendus-fruit.com/_borders/apple%20tree.JPG http://www.texaspeaches.com/vogel/PeachTree.jpg 6. The Rose family contains some of our most tempting fruits One of the six most economically important crop plant families Includes: apples, pears, quinces, loquats, almonds, peaches/ nectarines, apricots, plums, cherries, strawberries, raspberries, blackberries and roses Project SOUND Hawthorn 7. What is a fruit? How do they develop? Fruit (botany): a part of a flowering plant that develops from specific tissues of the flower (one or more ovaries, and in some cases accessory tissues). As the ovules develop into seeds, the ovary begins to ripen and the ovary wall, the pericarp, may become fleshy (as in berries), or form a hard outer covering (as in nuts). Project SOUND http://urbanext.illinois.edu/apples/images/plant.gif 8. Why did fleshy fruits arise in some plants? Fruits are the means by which these plants disseminate seeds. By making the fruits more attractive (sweet/colorful), plants attract the best disseminators: birds, animals &amp; humans This is another good example of: Mutualistic relationships Plants spending a little extra energy on reproduction Project SOUND https://botanistinthekitchen.wordpress.com/2013/08/ Are plants our servants or are we theirs??? 9. There actually is a CA native apple Raintree Nursery Forest Farm Nursery Project SOUND *Malus fusca - Pacific crabapple https://www.forestfarm.com/product.php?id=2938 http://okanaganokanogan.com/2013/09/17/ancient-stories-of-life-death-and-art/ 10. Project SOUND * Madrone Arbutus menziesii 2006 Julie Wakelin 11. SW British Columbia S through WA, OR, CA (coastal mountains &amp; west slopes Sierra Nevada; San Gabriels . The southern limit: Mount Palomar, San Diego County. Wooded slopes/canyons in oak, redwood, mixed evergreen forests, chaparral &lt; 5000 ft. Project SOUND * Madrone Arbutus menziesii 2006 Julie Wakelin Image by Scott Jones http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi- bin/get_cpn.pl?ARME http://en.wikipedia.org/wik i/Arbutus_menziesii 12. Madrone: declining in most of its range Possible causes: fire control Under natural conditions, madrones depend on intermittent naturally occurring fires to reduce the conifer overstory. Mature trees survive fire, and can regenerate more rapidly after fire. They are often associated. They also produce very large numbers of seeds, which sprout following fire. Possible causes: increasing development pressures Destruction due to changed drainage: extremely sensitive to alteration of the grade or drainage near the root crown. Until about 1970, this phenomenon was not widely recognized; many local governments have addressed this issue by stringent restrictions on grading and drainage alterations when Madrones are present. Possible causes: disease Susceptible to many fungal pathogens Affected to a small extent by sudden oak death, a disease caused by the water-mold Phytophthora ramorum. Project SOUND 13. Project SOUND Madrone: a stately tree Size: 50-100+ ft tall (slow growth; generally 20-50 ft) 20-75 ft wide Growth form: Large evergreen woody tree Heavy limbs; irregular pattern Bark red; peeling Foliage: Green to blue-green Leaves medium size (3-5 in. long), simple, shiny Regular leaf drop Roots: Extensive root system Resprouts from burl 2002 Timothy D. Ives H. Vannoy Davis California Academy of Sciences 14. Project SOUND Flowers: like manzanita Blooms: in Spring; usually Mar- May S. CA lower elevations Flowers: Small size White; urn-shaped like manzanita Large, showy clusters Bee pollinators; also visited by hummingbirds Seeds: Small and hard Strong embryo dormancy - Require 40-60 day cold-moist stratification + acid treatment for good germination 2006, G. D. Carr 15. Madrone fruits: showy and edible Pea-size bumpy, scarlet red berries Ripen fall through winter Very showy one of the reasons this species is planted Can be eaten raw, boiled, steamed or used to make cider; can be stored for a long time if boiled and dried Salinan, Miwok, Pomo, and other California tribes hand picked berries. Higher branches were shaken or hit with a long stick to knock off the berries into a basket or cleared area You can use a long-handled pruner . Project SOUND http://www.rainyside.com/plant_gallery/natives/Arbutus_menziesii.html 16. Ground madrone/manzanita berries Collect berries in fall. Dry berries. Grind into a fine powder. Use as a sweet spice or sugar substitute or for tea. Project SOUND http://www.livingwild.org/fall/madrone/ 17. Wild Granola Ingredients 4 cups rolled oats 1 cup chopped almonds or other nuts cup coconut cup maple syrup or Manzanita sugar cup vegetable oil tsp salt cup prepared Oak nut flour cup dried and ground wild berries (Madrone, Manzanita, Toyon) cup fresh berries if available Instructions Preheat oven to 300o. Combine the oats, nuts and coconut; add syrup or Manzanita sugar, Oak nut flour, oil and salt. Pour onto 2 sheet pans; cook for approximately 1 hour, stirring occasionally. Add ground berries. Top with fresh berries just before serving. Project SOUND http://www.livingwild.org/fall/madrone/ 18. Project SOUND Plant Requirements Soils: Texture: well-drained soils pH: slightly acidic best Light: Plants need part-shade for establishment Probably not suited for very hot gardens Water: Winter: good rainfall; most places in natural range get more than we do Summer: Treat as Water Zone 2 in our area: occasional deep water Other: organic mulch away from trunk and burl Image by Scott Jones 19. Project SOUND Madrone : big places Large tree in Zone 2 places; shade tree Along the coast On North-facing slopes 2007 Julie Kierstead Nelson 2013, Ben Legler 2005, Shaun Hubbard 20. Madrones are great habitat trees Important food for the dark- eyed junco, fox sparrow, band- tailed pigeon, quail and others; Fruits also eaten by mammals Important habitat for primary cavity-nesting species such as the red-breasted sapsucker and hairy woodpecker. Secondary cavity nesters such as the acorn woodpecker, downy woodpecker, mountain chickadee, house wren, and western bluebird also nest in Madrones Project SOUND 2009, Al Dodson The trees provide food, perches and nesting places for many bird species. 21. Madrone as medicine Burns - Rub crushed, fresh leaves on skin according to the Cowichan Indians. Colds, Coughs and Sore Throats - Add approximately 5 leaves to boiling water and steep for 20 minutes to make tea. Drink twice daily for colds and gargle as needed for sore throats. Purification and Ceremony - Leaves were used in puberty ceremonies by the Karok Indians. Rheumatism, Sore Muscles, Joint Inflammation - Rub crushed leaves on skin. Stomach Disorders - Chew 1 to 2 leaves for stomachache or cramps, according to the Miwok and Cahuilla Indians, or make Madrone cider by steeping the leaves for 20 minutes. Project SOUND 22. Project SOUND *Black (Western) hawthorn Crataegus douglasii 2004, Ben Legler 23. Project SOUND *Black (Western) hawthorn Crataegus douglasii http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Crataegus_douglasii_range_map_2.png http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?6677,6716,6717 Native to northern and western North America to N. CA - most abundant in the Pacific Northwest Grows in varied habitats from forest to scrubland. Requirement: access to deep water 24. Hawthorn: not just in N. America Historically, hawthorn species were used for building hedges and many cultivars have adorned ornamental English gardens. The common name hawthorn comes from an Anglo-Saxon word haguthorn that is translated into a fence with thorns. The English affinity for hawthorns extends to the traditional use of its beautiful blossoms in May Day celebrations, to poetry where the tree often symbolizes the spirit of spring and to lovely jellies Project SOUND http://urbanbutterflygarden.co.uk/hawthorn-a-shrub-native- in-hedgerows-across-britain 25. Project SOUND Hawthorn: large shrub of small tree Size: 10-35 ft tall 10-20 ft wide Growth form: Mounded, shrubby form Several trunks or short single trunks with many stout stems above True thorns Winter deciduous Slow growing Foliage: Medium green Oval leaves with distal teeth Roots: deep roots J. E.(Jed) and Bonnie McClellan California Academy of Sciences 2004, Ben Legler 26. Project SOUND Flowers: Rose family Blooms: in Spring April-May in wild - ?? April in S. Bay Flowers: Modest size: perhaps inch; but in showy clusters White; in parts of 5 typical for Rose family Unusual scent (fishy) attracts pollinators including butterflies and midges http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus_douglasii Susan McDougall @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database 27. Pomes: think apple Pome: seed-bearing ovary (core) is surrounded by a thick, fleshy hypanthium Usually has multiple seeds Common in the Rose family Examples: Garden fruits: apple, cotoneaster, loquat, pear, Asian pear, pyracantha Native fruits: toyon, hawthorn, manzanita, mission manzanita. serviceberry, rosehip, Project SOUND http://www.puchen.org/gardens/Conservatory/pl/fruit2.html http://garden65.blogspot.com/2013/10/foraging.html 28. Roses dirty little secretpoison The highly cyanogenic nature of rosaceous stone fruits (e.g. almonds, peaches, cherries) has long been known. The fleshy portions of the ripe fruits are basically innocuous so we eat them The seeds, which accumulate the cyanogenic disaccharide (R)- amygdalin, have been responsible for numerous cases of acute cyanide poisoning of humans and domesticated and wild animals Project SOUNDhttp://barefootintheorchard.blogspot.com/2011/07/fridays-photos-stone-fruit.html 29. Toyon just a rose by another name? The cyanogenic glycoside content of Toyon - as well as its resultant toxicity to insects and other herbivores - is well described. The cyanogenic potential is highest in the newly developing leaves. The cyanic glycosides in the pulp of immature fruits protect them from premature bird predation During the long seed maturation process, cyanogenic glucosides are gradually shifted from pulp to seed, while pulp carbohydrates increase and fruits turn from green to red. The birds read the cues and eat the fruit Subsequent seed predation is prevented by the localization of cyanogenic glycosides in the seeds. It can be used (as needed) or converted to other Nitrogen compounds. Project SOUND Toyon is the pome branch of the Rose Family along with quince, pear, apple hawthorn, pyracantha, cotoneaster, pomegranate, and others http://curls-eyelashes.blogspot.com/2012/12/why-coat-apple-fruits.html 30. Hawthorn: lovely for jellies, sauces Dark red when ripe in fall Fairly easy to pick just beware of thorns [another Rose protective trick] Many uses: Jelly/syrup Catsup/chutney Sauces Alcoholic cordials/wine Etc., etc., etc. Come to the Spring Garden Tea at Madrona April 12th to taste Project SOUND 31. Project SOUND Hawthorn Requirements Soils: Texture: any well-drained pH: any local except very alkali Light: Part-shade/dappled sun is optimal in our area Full sun with adequate water Water: Winter: plenty Summer: regular to moderate water Water Zone 2-3 or 3 for good fruiting Fertilizer: none; likes poor soils Other: needs an organic mulch and/or herbaceous groundcover (Yarrow; strawberries; etc.) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crataegus_douglasii Plant young &amp; dont move long taproot 32. Project SOUND Hawthorn In an edibles or medicinal plants garden As a small tree or background shrub or in a hedgerow Habitat: Larval Host: Gray Hairstreak, Mourning Cloak Birds ; insect pollinators 2009 John J. Kehoe http://www.wildflower.org/plants/result.php?id_plant=CRDO2 33. Hedgerows: food, health &amp; habitat Many of the plants in this months list are perfect size and habit for hedges and hedgerows Be sure to look at the list Project SOUND 34. Project SOUND Netleaf hackberry Celtis laevigata var. reticulata Celtis reticulata 35. Native to western United States (mainly the Southwest), but extending eastward Riverside &amp; San Bernardino Co, Kern Co - Banning, Mojave Desert Mtns Most commonly in bottomlands, washes, ravines, arroyos, etc. Also as scattered individuals in desert shrubland and semi-desert grasslands. Project SOUND Netleaf hackberry Celtis laevigata var. reticulata http://ucjeps.berkeley.edu/cgi-bin/get_JM_treatment.pl?7729,7730,7731 http://www.arizonensis.org/sonoran/fieldguide/plantae/celtis_reticulata.html http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celtis_reticulata 36. Project SOUND Celtis: nice size water-wise tree Size: 20-30 ft tall 20-30 ft wide Growth form: Usually a small tree with relatively short trunk; bumpy bark Spreading branches; rounded form Medium-slow growth; lives 100- 200 years Winter deciduous Foliage: Medium green; simple with net-like veins underside; gritty feel Roots: wide-spreading, shallow &amp; deep. Dont plant too near foundation 2013 Jean Pawek http://www.bio.utexas.edu/courses/bio406d/images/pics/ulm/celtis_laevigata_reticulata.htm http://www.bio.utexas.edu/courses/bio406d/images/pics/ulm/celtis_laevigata_reticulata.htm 37. Project SOUND Flowers: not much to write home about Blooms: spring - usually March- April S. CA Flowers: Separate male and female flowers on same plant Female flowers (shown) not very noticeable green-yellow and small Flowers on this years growth Fruits develop from an inferior ovary Vegetative reproduction: Can re-sprout from root crown if above-ground portions are damaged http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Celtis_reticulata http://www.friocanyonnature.com/n/w/celtis-r.htm 38. Fruit: sweet drupes Fruits are small drupes ( - inch) Ripen in late summer or fall; ripe fruits are red to dark red Surprisingly sweet and tasty you can eat them fresh, but they have a big seed Important food source for many Native American peoples; eat fresh, dried, as fruit leather, cooked Make nice jelly, candy, syrup or dried and ground for tea, seasoning Birds love them; they stay on the tree in winter, so birds c...</p>