- 1.PREPARED BY: NURUL IFFAH AZLIN DABNEY NORDALILAH ELNIZIANA AINUL ZAKIRAH EDU 702 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY (DR JOHAN EDDY LUARAN)
2. DEFINITION GOAL RESEARCH PROCESSKEY CHARACTERISTIC TYPE OF ETHNOGRAPHIC RESEARCH TECHNIQUES 3. DEFINITION The study of the cultural patterns and perspectives of participant in their natural settings. To understand the situation about a phenomena 4. GOAL Describe, analyze & interpret the culture of a group Shared beliefs, behaviors & language Culture set of attitudes, values, concepts, beliefs & practices shared What researchers attempt to describe in research? Cultural orientation Cultural know-how Cultural beliefs 5. 1. PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH 2. THE RELEVANCE OF THE PROPOSED STUDY 3. SITE AND SAMPLE FOR THE STUDY 4. ESTABLISH RAPPORT WITH COLLABORATORS 5. BEGIN DATA COLLECTION 6. ANALYZE & INTERPRET DATA , WRITE ETHNOGRAPHIC ACCOUNT 6. The most complex of all research To obtain as holistic a picture as possible A holistic perspective of: A particular group of society Institution Setting Situation 7. Conducted in a natural context. Emphasis on documenting everyday experiences of individuals by observing and interviewing Involves intimate face-to-face interactions with participants. Reflects participants perspectives and behaviours. Data is collected primarily through fieldwork experiences. 8. Uses multiple data sourced including both quantitative and qualitative. Key tools : indepth interviewing & continual observation Within a socio-political and historical context. Establishing rapport in a new community Researcher learn to act naturally (so people go about their business as usual) 9. Investigates a small number of cases in detail. Uses data analysis that involve the explicit interpretation of the meanings and functions of human actions Interpretations of peoples actions and behaviours that are uncovered through the investigation of what they actually do and the reason for doing it. 10. Offers a representation or interpretation of peoples lives and behaviours. Built on the points of understanding that occur between the researcher and participants. Thick description Non-judgmental orientation (researcher refrain from making value judgement) Eg of Title: Inside High School:The student perspective/Amalan Pengetua Cemerlang 11. Three major techniques: 1)Triangulation 2)Participant Observation 3)Field notes 12. Collecting data using many sources rather than a single one. Multiple sources: - Interviews - Observations - Artifacts Multiple informants. Consistency across sources and informants creates a stronger understanding of what is truly going on. 13. The researcher is immersed in the research setting in order to get close to those studied as a way of understanding what their experiences and activities mean to them. Two purposes: 1) To observe the activities, people and physical aspects of a situation. 2) To engage in activities that provide useful information in a given situation. 14. Make mental notes and record them as soon as possible after observing. Jot down key information. Capture key words and phrases without a lot of explanation. Use a mnemonic device to help reconstruct the observed events. Dont worry about grammar or other rules. Trace what you did during the day. Avoid the temptation to recreate dialogue 15. Describe as completely and accurately as you can all relevant aspects of the observation. Record your personal reactions (i.e.: reflective field notes) Observe and record everything you possibly can. Observe and look for nothing in particular. 16. Historical research is the act of researching the events that have happened in history. There are many classes available for this type of research. The definition of historical research is finding out what happened in the past. Research is done by using old newspapers, old census forms, or other historical documents. This type of research is done to understand past events. it is a process of critical inquiry into past events in order to produce an accurate description of those event. - Wiersma (1986) 17. Historical research is conducted to Uncover the unknown Answer questions Identify the relationship that the past has to the present Record and evaluate accomplishments of individuals, agencies, or institutions Aid in understanding the culture in which we live 18. STEPS INVOLVED IN HISTORICAL RESARCH 1. Defining the problem (including the formulation of hypotheses if appropriate) 2. Locating relevant sources of historical information 3. Summarizing information obtained from historical sources 4. Evaluating Historical Sources 19. Examples of historical studies that have been published; Shakespeare Under Different Flags: The Bard in German Classrooms from Hitler to Honecker. 1 A Better Crop of Boys and Girls: The School Gardening Movement, 18901920. 2 It is better to study in depth a well-defined problem so that the investigator is off to a good start Insufficient data include (certain kinds of documents, such as diaries or maps from a particular period) simply cannot be located in historical research. Historical research problems should be clearly and concisely stated, be manageable, have a defensible rationale, and (if appropriate) investigate a hypothesized relationship among variables. 1. Defining the problem 20. Historical source material can be grouped into four basic categories: Documents : It refers to any kind of information that exists in some type of written or printed form, such as annual reports, artwork, newspapers and magazines . Numerical records : It can be any type of numerical data in printed form such as test scores, attendance figures and school budgets. Oral statements : Oral statement is the statements people make orally such as stories, myths, tales, legends and songs. Relics : Relic is any object whose physical or visual characteristics can provide some information about the past. Examples include furniture, clothing, buildings, monuments, or equipment. 21. It is one prepared by an individual who was a participant in or a direct witness to the event being described. Example : Songs composed by members of a high school glee club in the 1930s. Primary Source It is a document prepared by an individual who was not a direct witness to an event but who obtained his or her description of the event from someone else. Example : A magazine article summarizing Aristotles views on education. Secondary Source 22. Determining the relevancy of the particular material to the question or problem being investigated Recording the full bibliographic data of the source Organizing the data one collects under categories related to the problem being studied Summarizing pertinent information (important facts, quotations, and questions) on note cards 3. Summarizing information obtained from historical sources Reading and summarizing historical data is rarely, if ever, a neat, orderly sequence of steps to be followed, however. Often reading and writing are interspersed 23. It means that researchers need to determine if the contents of the document are accurate. Both the accuracy of the information contained in a document and the truthfulness of the author need to be evaluated. As with external criticism, several questions need to be asked in attempting to evaluate the accuracy of the truthfulness of its author, example: a) Was the author present at the event he or she is describing? b) Was the author a participant in or an observer of the event? c) Was the author emotionally involved in the event? d)Was the author competent to describe the event? Internal Criticism With regard to the contents of the document, such as : a) Do the contents make sense? b) Could the event described have occurred at that time? c) Would people have behaved as described? d) Does the language of the document suggest a bias of any sort? 24. GENERALIZATION IN HISTORICAL RESEARCH 25. Historical research is that which utilizes historical sources like documents to study events or ideas of the past, including the philosophy of persons and group. As in all research, researchers who conduct historical studies should exercise caution in generalizing from small or non-representative samples. GENERALIZATIONINHISTORICALRESEARCH 26. STRENGHTS OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 27. It can illuminate the effects of key interactions within a culture or sub- culture. Researchers can apply scientific objectivity in attempting to determine exactly what did happen in the past. Throw light on present and future trends. Can make use of more categories of evidence than most other methods (with the exception of case study and ethnographic studies). STRENGHTSOFHISTORICALRESEARCH 28. LIMITATIONS OF HISTORICAL RESEARCH 29. LIMITATIONSOFHISTORICALRESEARCH History also depends on valuable materials which are difficult to preserve. Can only give a fractional view of the past; its knowledge is never complete and derived from the surviving records of a limited number of past events. Researchers cannot ensure representation of the sample. Limited to whatever data are available and excessively relies on secondary source of data. 30. Example of historical research 31. Lydia Ann Stow: Self-Actualization in a Period of Transition Vivian C. Fox , Worcester State College This paper is concerned with a crucial period of self-actualization in the life of Lydia Ann Stow (18231904) 32. Example framing of a research question 33. QUESTIONS 1. What is definition of Relic? Give FOUR example of Relic. 2. Why is it important to establish rapport with collaborators or group of society we want to do our research on? 3. What is referred to as in the technique of Triangulation? 4. What are the purposes of the researcher being immersed in the research setting? 5. State ONE disadvantage of historical research.