An introduction to systematic and explicit phonics.
- 1. Early success in acquiring readingskills usually leads to latersuccesses in reading as the learnergrows, while failing to learn to readbefore the third or fourth year ofschooling may be indicative of life-long problems in learning new skills.
2. According to UNESCO, one-fifth ofthe worlds adult population can notmake informed decisions because oftheir lack of literacy skills. According to former UndersecretaryJuan Miguel Luz, We are graduatingpeople who learn less and less. 3. Readingis acquiring meaning fromwritten texts.Reading is a paradox because itlooks so simple, yet, it is so difficult tolearn. 4. Reading and literacy skills are some of themost important skills a child with learningdisabilities and other reading difficulties canmaster during the early years of schooling,because reading skills are the basis forsubsequent mastery of almost every subjectarea. -William N. Bender and Elizabeth J.Larkin 5. Reading is not natural (Moats, 1999). Reading is a cultural invention (Pinker, 2004). Failure in ones ability to read results inunpleasant experiences for children with readingdifficulties and it hinders academic achievement(Stanovich,1994). Exposure to print is a good predictor of generalknowledge skills (Stanovich and Cunningham,1998) 6. Instruction should be based on explicitand systematic phonics (NationalReading Panel, 2000) Young readers need phonologicalinstruction in early literacy instruction Teaching of reading should be basedon evidence-based practices. 7. Reading is complex to learn andcomplicated to teach. A positive attitude in teaching readingis simply not enough. In teaching reading, you have to knowall the steps and, most importantly,recognize the missteps (Carnine andcolleagues, 2010). 8. Systematic entails that lessons arecarefully sequenced and planned Explicit means that a teacher is tellingthe children what he or she is trying toteach. At present, publishers use the termsystematic and explicit phonics thewrong way. 9. Systematic instruction has 2 importantterms: scope and sequence. Scope includes the content of thephonics instruction. Sequence defines an order of teachingletter-sound correspondences. Lessons are carefully planned andsequenced. Systematic is across a period of time. 10. Typical letter sequence taught inschools: a, b, c, d, e, f, g.. Carefully sequenced introduction ofletter sounds: a, m, t, s, i, f.. Letter sounds with great utility aretaught first and similar letters aresequenced far apart to avoid confusion 11. Teaching kids directly what they needto learn. Instruction is scaffolded to ensuremastery and success. Teacher follows a My Turn-Together-Your Turn model in teaching. There is provision for error correction 12. My Turn: I will sound out this word:/s/-/a/-/t/ sat. Together: Sound out this word withme: /s/-/a/-/t/ sat You Turn: Sound out this word: /s/-/a/-/t/ sat 13. Phonemic Awareness Skills Phonics and Word Identification Explicit instruction on reading fluency toenable kids to read fast and accurately Explicit strategies on vocabulary and wordanalysis. Explicit and guided instruction on readingcomprehension 14. The DIBELS measures assess the 5 Big Ideas inearly literacy identified by the National ReadingPanel: Phonemic Awareness Alphabetic Principle Accuracy and Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension 15. Phonemic awareness is the ability to hear,identify, blend, segment and manipulateindividual sounds in spoken words. Phonemic awareness instruction helps allchildren improve their reading, includingnormally developing readers, children at riskfor reading difficulties, disabled readers,preschool readers and elementary readers(National Reading Panel, 2000) Focus only on blending and segmenting. 16. Systematic and explicit phonicsinstruction is most effective for childrenwith learning disabilities whencombined with synthetic phonics(National Reading Panel, 2000) Systematic synthetic phonics improvespelling abilities of children 17. Children learn meanings of wordsindirectly by engaging inconversations, listening to adultsand reading on their own. Direct instruction is useful alongsidenatural word learning. 18. Guided, repeated oral-readingprocedures that improve reading fluencyhave a positive impact on wordrecognition and comprehension Fluency can be improved by havingstudents read and reread at a certainnumber of times or until a certain levelof accuracy and speed are reached(National Reading Panel, 2000) 19. Fluency instruction leads to gains incomprehension. (RRSG, 2002) Text comprehension can beimproved by instruction that helpsreaders use specificcomprehension strategies (NationalReading Panel, 2000)