Emerging Technologies in South African Higher Education Institutions: towards a teaching and learning framework

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This paper was presented at the 7th International Conference on e-Learning held at the Chinese University of Hong Kong, 21-22 June, 2012


  • 1.Emerging Technologies in SouthAfrican Higher Education Institutions: Towards a teaching and learning frameworkDick Ngambi1, Daniela Gachago2, EuniceIvala2, Vivienne Bozalek3 and Kathy Watters3 1University of Cape Town, Cape Town South Africa 2Cape Pennisula University of Technology, Cape Town, South Africa 3University of Western Cape, Cape Town, South Africa Presented at ICEL 2012, the Chinese University of Hong Kong 21-22 June 2012

2. Research team 8 SA HEIs(SU, UWC, UCT,CPUT, UP,Rhodes, Wits,Fort Hare) 1 NGO (OpenCoursewareConsortium) More information at http://emergingicts.blogspot.com/ 3. Outline Introduction Motivation Conceptual framework Methodology Findings Conclusion Questions 4. Introduction Use of emerging technologies such asFacebook, Twitter, blogs and many othersamong students and educators is increasing(Johnston et al. 2011, Johnson andAdams, 2011) Use of technologies promise to radicallytransform teaching and learning practice(Johnson et al., 2012) 5. Motivation Despite an increasing use of emergingtechnologies (ET) in HEI in general and SouthAfrica in particular, teaching and learning(T&L) practices remain untransformed We sought to uncover how educators wereusing technologies, and whether it waspossible to develop a T&L framework of usingET to transform practice 6. Our research question To what extent does the use of emergingtechnologies among educators fosteremergent and or transformative learning forstudents? 7. Terminologies Emerging technologies has a contestedmeaning (see Siemens and Tittenberger, 2009;Veletsianos, 2010) but usually mentioned as ifit has a universally accepted meaning Attempts to define ET include (New MediaConsortiums Horizon Reports, 2011 & 2012;Siemens & Tittenbergers book, 2009;Veletsianos edited collection on ET, 2010) butyet its definition is still in flux 8. Rather than define, we opted for characteristics of ET1. May or may not be new technologies2. Evolving organism, that exist in the state of coming into being3. Go through hype cycles4. They are not yet fully understood5. They are not yet fully researched6. They are potentially disruptive, but that potential is mostly unfulfilled Veletsianos, 2010:13-17 9. Conceptual framework Mayes and de Freitas (2004) propose threeperspectives that affect choices of teachingstrategies: Associative Task-focused Cognitive and Develop autonomous learners Situative Exploit learning relationships 10. Types of learning strategies Prescriptive learning Pre-determines what learners should learn(Williams, 2011) Emergent / transformative learning Learning is through interactions with people,resources and others (Williams, 2011) Technology is used to increase levels ofinteractions (Anderson and Garrison, 2003) andlead to deep and meaningful learning (Anderson,2003) 11. FrameworkReplicative/Prescriptive Emergent /learning Transformative(pre-determined) learning (learning by engagement)Associative Associative Replication / Associative Emergent /(task-focused)Prescriptive (ARP)Transformative (AET)Cognitive Cognitive Replication / Cognitive Emergent /(autonomous Prescriptive (CRP)Transformative (CET)learner)Situative Situative Replication / Situative Emergent /(relationships) Prescriptive (SRP)Transformative (SET) 12. MethodologyQualitative & Survey Quantitative dataAug-Sept 2011:Use of questionssurvey sent to pedagogical 22 HEIs uses of ET30 questions Descriptiveopen & closedstatistics Interpretive 262 approach for respondentsqualitative data Ethical clearance obtained 13. Findings Most used Least usedtechnologiestechnologiesNever used OEROER (60%)(39%)Never used eBookseBooks (67%)(33%) Never used socialSocial media (69%)medial (31%)Research databasesNever used research(75%)databases (24%) 14. What most educators use 15. What students use, and only a few academics do 16. Associative / Replication /PrescriptionDistributing routine lectures (associative) aspodcast/vodcasts Lecturer generated podcasts / vodcasts 17. Students work collaboratively (situative) to producepodcasts/vodcasts and distribute via a LMSSituative Emergent / Transformation Student generated podcasts / vodcasts 18. Task focused (Associative) and prescriptive yet could beAssociative replication / prescriptivetransformative if students answered questionsUseto answer critical &reflective questions abouttodays lecture 19. Emergent transformative - example An autonomous learner (cognitive) learning through I run an adaptive management coursewhere students were given a fish in aengagement (emergent)tank to take for and to keep a personalblog journal of how often they changedits water, feed the fish, what plants theyintroduced, what was the quality ofwater and where they kept the fish (E5) 20. Situative Replication / prescriptive -Learning through relationships (situative) and applying fixed example the students would then be knowledge on video story tellingpaired up with those people in thecommunity who have been trainedby our local newspaper in basicprint journalism. Students trainedthem in video storytelling and thenhad to shoot their own clips (E4) 21. Observations Most (28%) of educators use of emergingtechnologies for T&L is self-motivated It was evident from data that mostinstitutions provided neither incentivenor supportive environment to useET for teaching (e.g. lack lack of policies) 22. Conclusion 1/2 Technologies emerging amongst HEeducators in South Africa Low bandwidth intensivetechnologies Prevalence of LMS Motivating factors guiding educatorsuse of ET Passion and availability oftechnologies 23. Conclusion 2/2 ET potential to transform teachingand learning practicesSpectrum of uses as per ourframeworkThough potential to transformT&L practices exist, educatorsnot exploiting the opportunity 24. Further research Further research is required toestablish whether there is arelationship between awareness of technologies and use for teachingand learning. 25. Any questions? See more information on our project on our blog:http://emergingicts.blogspot.com/ 26. ReferencesAnderson, S. 2010. Theories for Learning with Emerging Technologies. In G. Veletsianos (ed.) Emerging Technologiesin Distance Education. Theory and Practice. Edmonton: AU Press, pp23-40.Anderson, T., & Elloumi, F. 2004. Theory and practice of online learning. (T. Anderson & F. Elloumi, Eds.)British Journal of Educational Technology (Vol. 36). Athabasca, Canada: Athabasca University. doi:10.1111/j.1467- 8535.2005.00445_1.x Herrington, J., Herrington, A., Mantei, J., Olney, I., & Ferry, B. (2009). Using mobile technologies to develop new ways of teaching and learning. In J. Herrington, A. Herrington, J. Mantei, I. Olney, & B. Ferry (Eds.), New technologies, new pedagogies: Mobile learning in higher education (Vol. 9). Faculty of Education, University of Wollongong. Retrieved from ro.uow.edu.au/newtechJohnson, L. and S. Adams. 2011. Technology Outlook for UK Tertiary Education 2011-2016: An NMC Horizon ReportRegional Analysis. Austin, Texas: The New Media ConsortiumMaddux, C. D., & Johnson, L. D. 2005. Type II Applications of Technology in Education. Computers in the Schools,22(1&2), 1-5.Veletsianos, G. 2010. A Definition of Emerging Technologies for Education. . In G. Veletsianos (ed.) EmergingTechnologies inDistance Education. Theory and Practice. Edmonton: AU Press, pp1-22Veletsianos, G. 2011. Designing Opportunities for Transformation with Emerging Technologies. EducationalTechnology,51(2), 41-46.