Elements of Poetry and Scansion

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  • 1.What is poetry?

2. A form of art in which language is used for its aesthetic and evocative qualities with or without its apparent meaning. 3. It is derived from the Greek word poiesis, meaning "making" or "creating 4. often uses particular forms and conventions to expand the literal meaning of the words, or to evoke emotional or sensual responses 5. What are the origins of poetry? 6. Many ancient works, from the Vedas to the Odyssey, appear to have been composed in poetic form to aid memorization and oral transmission, in prehistoric and ancient societies. 7. The oldest surviving poem is the Epic of Gilgamesh, from the 3rd millennium BC in Sumer (Mesopotamia, now Iraq), which was written in cuneiform script on clay tablets and, later, papyrus. 8. Other ancient epic poetry includes the Greek epics, Iliad and Odyssey, and the Indian epics, Ramayana and the Mahabharata. 9. What are the genres of poetry? 10. POETIC GENRES Narrative PoetrySatirical PoetryEpic PoetryLyric PoetryDramatic Poetry 11. Narrative Poetry Tells a story May be the oldest genre of poetry Includes epics, ballads, idylls and lays 12. Epic Poetry It recounts, in a continuous narrative, the life and works of a heroic or mythological person or group of persons. 13. Dramatic Poetry Is drama written in verse to be spoken or sung, and appears in varying and sometimes related forms in many cultures. uses the discourse of the characters involved to tell a story or portray a situation. 14. Satirical Poetry A punch of an insult delivered in verse often written for political purposes. A notable example is that of the Roman poet Juvenal. 15. Lyric Poetry Portrays the poet's own feelings, state of mind, and perceptions. Derived from the word "lyre; implies that it is intended to be sung Includes sonnets, elegy, ballads, odes , villanelles and pastourelles 16. What are the basic elements of poetry? 17. Basic Elements of PoetryRHYTHMis the actual sound that results from a line of poetry. 18. Basic Elements of PoetryRHYTHMthe pattern of stressed and unstressed syllables in a line. 19. RHYTHM THUS, when we describe the rhythm of a poem, we scan the poem and mark the stresses (/) and absences of stress (^) and count the number of feet. 20. Kinds of feet (English): Iamb unstressed syllable (^) followed by a stressed syllable (/) iamb^The(^/)/^/^/^/^/^/^/fallingoutoffaithfulfriendsrenewingisoflove 21. Trochee one syllable followed unstressed syllablestressed by antrochee (/^) /^ Double,/^ double/^toiland/^ trouble 22. Anapest (^^/) two unstressed syllables followed by one stressed syllable anapest ^^/^^/Iam monarch of all^^/Isurvey 23. Dactyl (/^^) one stressed syllable followed by two unstressed syllables dactyl (/^^) /^^/ ^^Takeheruptenderly 24. Spondee (//) two togetherstressedsyllablesPyrrhic (^^) two unstressed syllables together (rare, usually used to end dactylic hexameter) 25. Spondee and pyrrhic are called feet, even though they contain only one kind of stressed syllable. They are never used as the sole meter of a poem. But inserted now and then, they can lend emphasis and variety to a meter. 26. /^ ^/^^Tossed by the tempest from//^/pole unto pole; 27. Basic Elements of PoetryMETERthe number of feet in a line 28. Basic Elements of PoetryMETERMeter is the definitive pattern established for a verse (such as iambic pentameter) 29. Basic Elements of PoetryMETERis often scanned based on the arrangement of "poetic feet" into lines. 30. Commonly used names for line lengths monometer 1 footpentameter5 feetdimeter2 feethexameter6 feettrimeter3 feetheptameter7 feetoctameter8 feettetrameter 4 feet 31. Some examples of metric system Iambic pentameter. It contains five feet per line, in which the predominant kind of foot is the "iamb Dactylic hexameter. It has six feet per line, of which the dominant kind of foot is the dactyl. 32. REMEMBER! 1 foot = 1 syllable with a stress and 1or 2 syllables without a stress. trochee (/^) /^ Double,/^ double/^toiland/^ trouble 33. iamb (^/) ^The/^/falling out^/^/^/^/^/of faithful friends renewing is of loveNumber of feet: 7 Meter: IAMBIC HEPTAMETER 34. anapest ^^/^^/Iam monarch of all Number of feet: 3 Meter: ANAPESTIC TRIMETER^^/Isurvey 35. dactyl (/^^) /^^/ ^^TakeheruptenderlyNumber of feet: 2 Meter: DACTYLLIC DIMETER 36. TRY THE FOLLOWING SCANSION EXERCISES! 37. #1 If this be error and upon me provedI never writ, nor no man ever loved.#2 Alas! What hereby shall I winIf he gainsay me? 38. #3 As fair art thou, my bonnie lass So deep in love am I: And I will love thee still, my dear, Till a the seas gang dry. 39. #4 Continuous, as the stars that shine And twinkle on the Milky Way, They stretched in never-ending line Along the margin of a bay: 40. Basic Elements of PoetryRHYMEconsists of identical (hard-rhyme) or similar (soft-rhyme) sounds placed at the ends of lines or at predictable locations within lines (internal rhyme). 41. Basic Elements of PoetryTHEMEcan be described as the soul of a poem 42. Basic Elements of PoetryTHEMEwhat the poet wants to express through his words. 43. Basic Elements of PoetryTHEMEmay either be a thought, a feeling, an observation, a story or an experience. 44. Basic Elements of PoetrySYMBOLISMvirtual substances and themes to express the deep hidden meaning behind the words. 45. Basic Elements of PoetrySYMBOLISMThe use of symbolism gives a more reflective empathy to the poem. 46. Basic Elements of PoetryALLITERATIONthe repetition of initial consonant sounds in two or more neighboring words or syllables. 47. Basic Elements of PoetryALLITERATIONseveral words in a line may be beginning from the same word for example 'musical melody of the mystic minstrels'. 48. Basic Elements of PoetryFIGURES OF SPEECHUsed when words and phrases that help the reader to picture ordinary things in new ways are chosen in poetic lines 49. Another important thing to knowSTANZAconsists of two or more lines of poetry that together form one of the divisions of a poem. 50. COUPLETSstanzas of only two lines which usually rhymeTERCETSstanzas of three lines.QUATRAINSstanzas of four lines.