Edtech ppt

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2. INTRODUCTIONEducational systems around the world are underincreasing pressure to use the newinformation and communication technologies(ICTs) to teach students the knowledge andskills they need in the 21st century.The 1998 UNESCO World Education Report,Teachers and Teaching in a Changing World,describes the radical implications the newinformation and communication technologieshave for conventional teaching and learning. Itpredicts the transformation of the teaching-learningprocess and the way teachers andlearners gain access to knowledge andinformation. 3. Technology, specifically computertechnology, is more pervasive than everbefore.As such, it has dramatically changedthe face of education in the 21st centuryand will continue to do so, but the extentto which technological change hasimproved or revolutionized teaching andlearning remains a topic of debateamong educators. 4. ISSUES1.How do we infuse technology into the entireteacher education program in the context ofthe Cognitive approach Sociocognitive approach2. What are the advantages and disadvantagesof the integration of technology in theclassroom?3. What are the other factors that hinder theintegration of technology in the classroom?4. What are the essential conditions forimplementing ICTs in teacher education? 5. ISSUESCOGNITIVE APPROACHTechnologies which support a cognitive approachto language learning are those which allowlearners maximum opportunity to interact withinmeaning-rich contexts through which theyconstruct and acquire competence in thelanguage. Examples of these types oftechnologies include text-reconstructionsoftware, concordancing software,telecommunications, and multimedia simulationsoftware. 6. Text-reconstruction software (e.g., NewReader fromHyperbole or Text Tanglers from Research DesignAssociates) allow teachers to provide students varioustexts in which letters or words are either missing or aresomehow in mixed up order. Students work alone or ingroups to complete or re-arrange the texts, thus supportinga process of mental construction of the linguistic system.While such activity could in theory be carried out withpaper and pencil, the computer provides facilitativefunctions for both teachers and students. In keeping withstudents needs, interests, and current curricula, teacherscan quickly and easily create re-arranged texts or clozeexercises from any original word-processed passage.Students can use hints provided by the computer asscaffolds for the acquisition process. 7. Concordancing software (e.g., Monoconc fromAthelstan) allows teachers or students to searchthrough small or large texts to look for instancesof the actual use of particular words.Concordancers are thus supplements todictionaries in that they help locate the usage of aword, rather than just its definition. In addition,concordancers are useful for investigatingcollocational meanings (e.g., "large box" vs. "bigbox," or "depend on" vs. "depend in" vs. "dependfor") or grammatical features (e.g., "was going" vs.used to go). Indeed, language learners candevelop their own hypotheses regarding rules ofsyntax or semantic collocations and test these outas powerful problem-solving activity. 8. Multimedia simulation software allows learners to enterinto computerized microworlds that, at their best, simulatean immersion or a lingistic bath environment; that is,learners can a sense of experiencing the target languageand culture first hand. Many such products also allow agreat of learner manipulation of language forms, functions,and cultural knowledge as part of their experience withinthe simulated environment. 9. SOCIOCOGNITIVE APPROACHESSociocognitive approaches, in contrast to cognitive approaches,emphasize the social aspect of language acquisition; learning alanguage is viewed as a process of apprenticeship or socialization intoparticular discourse communities (Schieffelin & Ochs, 1986). From thisperspective, students need to be given maximum opportunity forauthentic social interaction, not only to provide comprehensible inputbut also to give students practice in the kinds of communication theywill later engage in outside the classroom. This can be achievedthrough student collaboration on authentic tasks and projects (Breen,1987; Candlin & Murphy, 1987; Long & Crookes, 1992; Prabhu, 1987)while simultaneously learning both content and language (Flowerdew,1993; Meskill, (in press); Snow, 1991). 10. SOCIOCOGNITIVE APPROACHES 1. Computer-MediatedCommunication in aClassroom2. Computer-MediatedCommunication forLong DistanceExchange3. AccessingResources andPublishing on theWorld Wide Web 11. OTHER MODEL STRATEGIES FORINTEGRATING ICTs INTO TEACHING1. WebQuests. A WebQuest is aninquiry-oriented activity in which mostor all of the information used bylearners is drawn from the Web.WebQuests are designed to uselearners time well, to focus on usinginformation rather than looking for it,and to support learners thinking atthe levels of analysis, synthesis, andevaluation.The WebQuest provides teachers anoption of reviewing and selectingweb-based learning activities in alessontype format. The WebQuestmodel encourages teachers to createfor their students new activities andadapt successful ones to takeadvantage of the Webs power.2. CyberGuides. CyberGuidesinclude standards-based, web-deliveredunits of instructioncentred on core works ofliterature. CyberGuidesprovide a quick supplementaryset of activities for students(and pre-service teachers) asthey explore specific pieces ofliterature. Each CyberGuidecontains a student and teacheredition, targeted standards, adescription of the task, aprocess by which the task maybe completed, teacher-selectedweb sites, and anassessment rubric. 12. OTHER MODEL STRATEGIES FORINTEGRATING ICTs INTO TEACHING3. Multimedia Presentations. creating a web page or site; developing a branchinghypermedia stack; using a multimedia slideshow application to create acomputer presentation; shooting and editing video tocreate a computer-generatedmovie. 4. Telecomputing Projects.Telecomputing projects areInternet-enriched learningactivities that often involvestudents in one locationcollaborating with students oradults in one or more otherlocations. They may share,among other things: experiences beliefs data information problem-solving strategies products they have developedor jointly developed. 13. OTHER MODEL STRATEGIES FORINTEGRATING ICTs INTO TEACHING5. Online Discussions. A commontype of telecomputing activityis online discussion. With thegrowth of infrastructure aroundthe world comes the ability toaccess others through remoteconnections. Students andteacher candidates canconnect to experts and peersthrough a variety of formats,such as chat rooms, electronicbulletin boards, and email.Communicating online offersparticipants freedom to sendand receive informationefficiently across diversegeographic locations.6. Choicemaster is a packagedesigned for teachers whowish to producestraightforward multiple-choiceexercises and tests. In tutorialmode, the student receivesimmediate feedback as everyquestion is completed. It offersclues and explanations whenwrong answers are selected.In tests, the students is notoffered any feedback until thewhole exercise has beencompleted. 14. ADVANTAGES OF ICT One question often asked byadministrators is whether or nottechnologies truly "work," that is, if theypromote language learning and do so in acost-effective way. These types ofquestions motivated much research in the1970s comparing use of computers to non-useof computers. 15. ADVANTAGES OF ICTThis type of research ignored two importantfactors. First of all, the computer is a machine,not a method. The world of onlinecommunication is a vast new medium,comparable in some ways to books, print, orlibraries. To our knowledge, no one has everattempted to conduct research on whether thebook or the library is beneficial for languagelearning. The enterprise of seeking similarconclusions on the effects of the computer orthe Internet is equally inappropriate. 16. ADVANTAGES OF ICT Secondly, and even moreimportantly, new communicationstechnologies are part of the broaderecology of life at the turn of thecentury. Much of our reading,writing, and communicating ismigrating from other environments(print, telephone, etc.) to thescreen. In such a context, we canno longer think only about how weuse technologies to teachlanguage. We also must think aboutwhat types of language studentsneed to learn in order tocommunicate effectively viacomputer. The main advantage of newtechnologies is thus that they canbe used to help prepare studentsfor the kinds of international cross-culturalcommunication which areincreasingly required for success inacademic, vocational, or personallife. This is accomplished throughcreating opportunities for authenticand meaningful interaction bothwithin and outside the classroom,and providing students the tools fortheir own social, cultural, andlinguistic exploration. 17. Disadvantages of ICT forlanguage teachingInvestment of MoneyInvestment of TimeUncertainty of Results 18. DISADVANTAGES OF ICT1. Investment of Money. Uses of new technologiesin the long run tend to result in higher productivity,at least in the economic sphere. Productivity ineducation is certainly harder to measure, but it isnot unreasonable to assume that over time newtechnologies will help create more effectiveeducation (bearing in mind the earlier point thatthe goals and nature of education are changing inthe information age, thus making directcomparisons difficult). 19. DISADVANTAGES OF ICT2. Investment of Time Just as technologiesmay save money over the long term, theyalso may save time. But, potential long-termbenefits to an institution are littleconsolation to an individual teacher who isspending enormous amounts of timelearning constantly-changing softwareprogra