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Duolingo: Gamifying Irish-language learning

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PowerPoint PresentationGamifying Irish-language learningGeraldine Exton; Liam MurrayUniversity of Limerick,IrelandDuolingowww.duolingo.com Freely available/inclusive/accessibleCrowdsourcing/TranslationIrish track, August 2014 beta versionFeedback from usersNow fully implementedWhat is Gamification?separate from Games: core of the systemDefinition:the use of game design elements in non-game contextsDeterdingWhy Gamification?Motivational affordancesgame elementsto increase participation and engagement of learnersConnect gamification and motivation MotivationSelf-Determination TheoryRyan and DeciThree components to be fulfilled: CompetenceAutonomyRelatednessSkill masteryChoice Social connectednessGamification and MotivationTaxonomy: Linking specific game elements to these components of motivationWhy?Address criticism slaps elements all over the place/ pointsification/ exploitationwareWork the motivational needs into the designGamification and MotivationTaxonomyTakes 16 elements found in gamesLooks at their target behavioursLinks these to Competence, Autonomy, RelatednessShows why this is importantShows when it occurs in gamified systemGamification and MotivationTaxonomyGame ElementCompetenceAutonomyRelatednessAchievementsAvatarsBadgesBoss FightsCollectionsCombatContent-UnlockingDiscussion forumsGiftingLeader-boardsLevelsPoints QuestsSocial GraphsTeamsVirtual GoodsApplication to DuolingoGamification in Duolingo11 out of the 16 elements presentHighly gamifiedGamification in DuolingoCOMPETENCEDuolingo home page: skills tree (achievements)High emphasis on mastery of skills9/11 elements fulfil competence needsGamification in DuolingoAUTONOMYDuolingo lingot store4/11 Autonomy-relatedChoice re: avatars, discussion forums, gifting & virtual goods (lingots)Gamification in DuolingoRELATEDNESSDuolingo discussion pageDiscussion forums: communities of practice9/11 RelatednessGamification in DuolingoFrom Taxonomy:14/16 Competence9 in Duolingo6/16 Autonomy4 in Duolingo12/16 Relatedness9 in DuolingoGamification in Duolingo100 million users (as of June 2015)Language learning always looking for ways to motivate learners:gamification is key to Duolingo successAccessible, free, funCommunity of learners helping each otherReferencesBogost, I., (2011) Persuasive Games: Exploitationware [online], available: http://www.gamasutra.com/view/feature/6366/persuasive_games_exploitationware.php [accessed April 7, 2014]Brathwaite, B., & Schreiber, I. (2008). Challenges for Game Designers, Charles River Media.Inc., Rockland, MA.Deterding, S., Dixon, D., Khaled, R., & Nacke, L. (2011). From game design elements to gamefulness: defining gamification. In Proceedings of the 15th International Academic MindTrek Conference: Envisioning Future Media Environments (pp. 9-15). ACM.Duolingo (2012) Duolingo: Free Language Education for the World [online], available: www.duolingo.com [accessed Feb 24, 2014] Ferro, L. S., Walz, S. P., & Greuter, S. (2013). Towards personalised, gamified systems: an investigation into game design, personality and player typologies. In Proceedings of The 9th Australasian Conference on Interactive Entertainment: Matters of Life and Death (p. 7). ACM.Hunicke, R., LeBlanc, M. & Zubek, R. (2004). MDA: A Formal Approach to Game Design and Game Research. Proceedings of the AAAI Workshop on Challenges in Game AI.Huotari, K. & Hamari, J. (2012). Defining gamification : a service marketing perspective. Proceeding of the 16th International Academic MindTrek Conference.Llagostera, E. (2012). On gamification and persuasion. SB Games, Brasilia, Brazil, November 2-4, 2012, 12-21.Protalinski, E., (2015) 100M users strong, Duolingo raises $45M led by Google at a $470M valuation to grow language-learning platform [online], available: http://venturebeat.com/2015/06/10/100m-users-strong-duolingo-raises-45m-led-by-google-at-a-470m-valuation-to-grow-language-learning-platform/ [accessed August 25, 2015]Reeves, B., & Read, J. L. (2009) Total Engagement: Using Games and Virtual Worlds to Change the Way People Work and Businesses Compete. MA: Boston,: Harvard Business School Publishing.ReferencesReinhardt, J., (no date) Developing a Research Agenda for Digital Game-Based L2 Learning [online], available: slat.arizona.edu/sites/slat/files/page/gamesresearchagenda.pptxReeves, B., & Read, J. L. (2009) Total Engagement: Using Games and Virtual Worlds to Change the Way People Work and Businesses Compete. MA: Boston,: Harvard Business School Publishing.Reinhardt, J., (no date) Developing a Research Agenda for Digital Game-Based L2 Learning [online], available: slat.arizona.edu/sites/slat/files/page/gamesresearchagenda.pptx[accessed August 18, 2015]Robertson, M., (2010) Cant Play Wont Play [online], available: http://hideandseek.net/2010/10/06/cant-play-wont-play/ [accessed April 7, 2014]Robinson, D., & Bellotti, V. (2013). A preliminary taxonomy of gamification elements for varying anticipated commitment. In Proc. ACM CHI 2013 Workshop on Designing Gamification: Creating Gameful and Playful Experiences. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being.American psychologist,55(1), 68.Thom, J., Millen, D., & DiMicco, J. (2012). Removing gamification from an enterprise SNS. In Proceedings of the ACM 2012 conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work (pp. 1067-1070). ACM.von Ahn, L., (2014) Duolingo turns two today! [online], available: https://www.duolingo.com/comment/3412629 [accessed January 28, 2015]Werbach, K and Hunter, D, (2012) For the Win: How Game Thinking Can Revolutionize Your Business, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton Digital Press


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