Admixture The autosomal DNA test ethnicity estimates.Alleles Analleleis one of a pair of genes that appear at a particular location on a particular chromosome and control the same characteristic, such as blood type or colorblindness. Vocabulary.comBelow you can see I inherited the Allele C from each parent. The two together are a genotype. My genotypes here are good. Sometimes they cause disease.
centiMorgan (cM)A centiMorgan (cM) is a measurement of how likely a segment of DNA is to recombine from one generation to the next. A single centiMorgan is considered equivalent to a 1% (1/100) chance that a segment of DNA will crossover or recombine within one generation. Family Tree DNA
DNA SegmentA DNA segment is any continuous run or length of DNA. It is described by the place where it starts and the place where it stops. From Family Tree DNA.
EndogamousAn endogamous population is one where the members usually only marry within the population group. The bases for endogamy may be geography, ethnic identity, social class, or religion. Long periods of intermarriage have left many endogamous populations with lower than average levels of genetic diversity. Examples of historically endogamous populations are the Amish, the Basque, and the various sub-populations of the Jewish Diaspora. From Family Tree DNA
Fully Identical SegmentTwo individuals are said to share afully identical region(FIR) orcompletely identical regionof DNA if thealleleson bothchromosomesare identical throughout the region Siblings share fully identical regions because they can inherit DNA in the same region from both parents. The Green in the chart about shows fully identical regions of siblings
HaplogroupA haplogroup is a major branch on either the maternal or paternal tree of humankind. Haplogroups are associated with early human migrations. Today these can associated with a geographic region or regions. From Family Tree DNA
HaplotypeA haplotype is the set of values for a set of DNA values. For example, the results of the Y-DNA12 test for one person is their haplotype.Two individuals that match exactly on all markers have the same haplotype. From Family Tree DNAAncestryDNA uses Haplotypes to phase their results or separate them according to maternal and paternal sides.
Half-Identical Region (HIR)A half-identical region (HIR) is when two people share a DNA segment thats half matches. The half-identical region may be eitheridentical by descent (IBD)oridentical by state (IBS). From Family Tree DNA site We receive half of our DNA from our mother or father. Our matches will match on our maternal or paternal side and will share half identical DNA.
Identical by Descent (IBD)Means a segment is inherited from a common ancestor
Identical by State (IBS)Means a segment cant be attributed to a common ancestor. Could be a coincidence or an ancient segment.
InbreedIn genetics, inbreed refers to someone whose parents are related. It most often refers to cases where the relationship is within five generations. Family Tree DnANew Ancestor Discoveries NADYou might hear AncestryDNA testers referring to NADs. They are talking about the New Ancestor Discoveries you find on your DNA home page. Ive found these are generally not ancestors. They generally point to cousins.
DNA Segment mappingUsing autosomal segment data provided by companies like 23andMe and Family Tree DNA to create a map of all your shared segments. Kittys DNA Mapper website allows you to create maps with segment data from any source.
PhasingSeparating DNA by Maternal and Paternal sides.
TriangulationIs when 3 or more people match on the same segment. This is where the chromosome mapping, and chromosome browsers at 23andMe and Family Tree DNA come in handy.
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism SNPsDNA copying errors. The more SNPs we share the more closely related we are. Below you can see a sequence that repeats until a copy error occurs, and we get a G instead of a C. A A T C G TA A T C G TA A T C G T A A T G G T