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DNA Grade 12

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  • 1. DNA GRADE 12

2. LOCATION OF DNA IN A CELL : Position of gene on chromosomeLocus 3. LOCATION OF DNA IN A CELL Chromatin is a complex of DNA and protein, and is found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Histones are proteins that are responsible for the first level of DNA packing in chromatin The chromatin network in the nucleus of a cell will coil up tightly during cell division and form individual chromosomes. 4. DNA : A LONG LINEAR POLYMER FOUND IN THE NUCLEUS OF A CELL AND FORMED FROM NUCLEOTIDES AND SHAPED LIKE A DOUBLE HELIX ASSOCIATED WITH THE TRANSMISSION OF GENETIC INFORMATION . 5. THE STRUCTURE OF DNA http://cronodon.com/BioTech/Cell_Nucleus.html 6. NUCLEIC ACID : (BIOCHEMISTRY) ANY OF VARIOUS MACROMOLECULES COMPOSED OF NUCLEOTIDE CHAINS THAT ARE VITAL CONSTITUENTS OF ALL LIVING CELLS. TYPE OF NUCLEIC ACID : DNA AND RNA 7. STRUCTURE OF A NUCLEOTIDE A nucleotide is made of 3 components: A Pentose sugar This is a 5 carbon sugar The sugar in RNA is ribose. The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose. 8. STRUCTURE OF A NUCLEOTIDE A Phosphate group Phosphate groups are important because they link the sugar on one nucleotide onto the phosphate of the next nucleotide to make a polynucleotide. 9. STRUCTURE OF A NUCLEOTIDE A Nitogenous base In DNA the four bases are: Thymine Adenine Cytosine Guanine In RNA the four bases are: Uracil Adenine Cytosine Guanine 10. WHAT IS DNA A nucleic acid that contains genetic information. Double helix shape Composed of nitrogenous bases (adenine, cytosine, guanine and thymine), a five-carbon sugar (deoxyribose), and a phosphate molecule. 11. SUGAR PHOSPHATE BONDS (BACKBONE OF DNA) Nucleotides are connected to each other via the phosphate on one nucleotide and the sugar on the next nucleotide A Polynucleotide Thursday, March 13, 2014 12. NITROGENOUS BASES TWO TYPES Pyramidines Thymine - T Cytosine - C Uracil - U Purines Adenine - A Guanine - G Thursday, March 13, 2014 13. ADENINE 14. GUANINE Thursday, March 13, 2014 15. COMPLEMENTARY BASE PAIRING Purines Pyramidines Adenine Thymine Adenine Uracil Guanine Cytosine 16. BASE PAIRING The Nitrogenous Bases pair up with other bases. For example the bases of one strand of DNA base pair with the bases on the opposite strand of the DNA. Thursday, March 13, 2014 17. THE RULE: Adenine always base pairs with Thymine (or Uracil if RNA) Cytosine always base pairs with Guanine. This is beacuse there is exactly enough room for one purine and one pyramide base between the two polynucleotide strands of DNA. 18. .3DISCOVERY OF THE DNA STRUCTURE Early in the 20th century, the identifi-cation of the molecules of inheritance loomed as a major challenge to biologists. 19. Discovery of the genetic role of DNA began with research by Frederick Griffith in 1928. pathogenic (S1,bacteriumof astrains2Griffith worked with harmless (R cells)1&cells) ofliving cellsstrain were mixed withpathogenickilled-Heat becameliving cellsstrain and the result = someharmless pathogenic. now defined as a,transformationThis phenomenon was called change in genotype & phenotype due to assimilation of foreign DNA. 20. 1952: A. Hershey & M. Chase experiments showing that DNA is the genetic material of T2 phage. To determine the source of genetic material in the phage, they designed an experiment showing that only 1 / 2 components of T2 (DNA or protein) enters an E. coli cell during infection They concluded that the injected DNA of the phage provides the genetic information 21. . THE ROLE OF DNA4 DNA is vital for all living beings even plants. It is important for: inheritance, coding for proteins and the genetic instruction guide for life and its processes. DNA holds the instructions for an organism's or each cells development and reproduction and ultimately death. DNA can replicate itself. 22. CODING DNA-NON Multicellular eukaryotes have many introns(non-coding DNA) within genes and noncoding DNA between genes. The bulk of most eukaryotic genomes consists of noncoding DNA sequences, often described in the past as junk DNA Much evidence indicates that noncoding DNA plays important roles in the cell. Sequencing of the human genome reveals that 98.5% does not code for proteins, rRNAs, or tRNAs. 23. DNA REPLICATION DNA replication is a biological process that occurs in all living organisms and copies their exact DNA. It is the basis for biological inheritance. 24. DNA: REPLICATION Thursday, March 13, 2014 25. The first major step for the DNA Replication to take place is the breaking of hydrogen bonds between bases of the two antiparallel strands. The unwounding of the two strands is the starting point. The splitting happens in places of the chains which are rich in A-T. That is because there are only two bonds between Adenine and Thymine (there are three hydrogen bonds between Cytosine and Guanine). Helicase is the enzyme that splits the two strands. The structure that is created is known as "Replication Fork". 26. DNA UNWINDS.. 27. Origins initiate replication at different times. Thursday, March 13, 2014 28. Thursday, March 13, 2014 29. REPLICATION FORK The replication fork is a structure that forms within the nucleus during DNA replication. It is created by helicases, which break the hydrogen bonds holding the two DNA strands together. The resulting structure has two branching "prongs", each one made up of a single strand of DNA. These two strands serve as the template for the leading and lagging strands, which will be created as DNA polymerase matches complementary nucleotides to the templates; The templates may be properly referred to as the leading strand template and the lagging strand template 30. DNA strands have a directionality, and the different ends of a single strand are called the "3' (three-prime) end" and the "5' (five-prime) end" with the direction of the naming going 5 prime to the 3 prime region. The strands of the helix are anti-parallel with one being 5 prime to 3 then the opposite strand 3 prime to 5. These terms refer to the carbon atom in deoxyribose to which the next phosphate in the chain attaches. Directionality has consequences in DNA synthesis, because DNA polymerase can synthesize DNA in only one direction by adding nucleotides to the 3' end of a DNA strand. 31. REFERENCES http://www.slideshare.net/guest93618/dna- 981508?qid=56427ae3-eee5-4740-a362- 2a25b50f7354&v=qf1&b=&from_search=35. Accessed on the 06 March 2014 http://www.slideshare.net/lissyjyothish/dna- 9042838?qid=56427ae3-eee5-4740-a362- 2a25b50f7354&v=qf1&b=&from_search=25. accessed on the 06 March 2014 http://www.slideshare.net/amalaielmorsy/dna- 30211742?qid=56427ae3-eee5-4740-a362- 2a25b50f7354&v=default&b=&from_search=48. Accessed on the 2014 32. http://www.slideshare.net/aquanat/dna- 12598390?qid=56427ae3-eee5-4740-a362- 2a25b50f7354&v=qf1&b=&from_search=52from_search =66.Accessed on the 06 March 2014 http://www.slideshare.net/guestd6e7b3/dna- presentation-910904?qid=56427ae3-eee5-4740-a362- 2a25b50f7354&v=default&b=&from_search=66.Accesse d on the 06 March 2014 33. LINK TO MY SLIDE SHARE ACOOUNT HTTP://WWW.SLIDESHARE.NET/201134827/D NA-140120073506PHPAPP02-1-31984050