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Disaster managment 8th 9th

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Dictionary meaning of "disaster" may be taken as: "a sudden accident or natural event that causes great damage or loss of life. The biggest problem with the disasters is thesuddenness and swiftness with which they arrive.

Earthquakes, industrial accidents, oil-spills, forest-fires, terrorist activities etc. are some of the more commonly encountered disasters

Some types of disasters are as follows:Natural disasters: These are primary natural disastersEarthquake VolcanoesFloodsTornadosTsunami Man Made : These are mostly caused due to certainhuman activities. Nuclear LeaksChemical LeaksOil spills EARTHQUAKE Earthquakes, also called temblors, can be so tremendously destructive, its hard to imagine they occur by the thousands every day around the world, usually in the form of small tremors. Some 80 percent of all the planet's earthquakes occur along the rim of the Pacific Ocean, called the "Ring of Fire" because of the preponderance of volcanic activity there as well. Most earthquakes occur at fault zones, where tectonic platesgiant rock slabs that make up the Earth's upper layercollide or slide against each other. Loss of life can be avoided through emergency planning, education, and the construction of buildings that sway rather than break under the stress of an earthquake.

WHAT TO DO WHEN EARTHQUAKE WARNING IS GIVENCheck for hazards in the house .Check for safe places inside as well as outside the house.Ensure all family members know how to respond after an earthquake Store breakable items such as bottled foods, glass, and china in low, closed cabinets with latches.Hold earthquake drills with your family members: Drop, cover and hold Develop an emergency communications plan in case of separation during the earthquakeIf possible try to repair any deep cracks in ceilings or foundations.

During earthquake:If indoors: Take cover under a piece of heavy furniture or against an inside wall and stay inside If outdoors: Move into the open, away from buildings, street lights, and utility wires and remain there until shaking stops If in a moving vehicle: Stop quickly, stay in vehicle, move to a clear area away from buildings, trees, overpasses, or utility wires

After the earthquake:Be prepared for after shocks.Help injured or trapped persons and give first aid where appropriate. Stay out of damaged buildings and return home only when authorities say it is safe.Shut off the main switch of the electricity.Listen to a battery operated radio for emergency information

FOREST FIRE They pose a threat not only to the forest wealth but also to the entire regime to fauna and flora seriously disturbing the bio-diversity and the ecology and environment of a region. During summer, when there is no rain for months, the forests become littered with dry senescent leaves and twinges, which could burst into flames ignited by the slightest spark. Forest fire causes imbalances in nature and endangers biodiversity by reducing faunal and floral wealth.

HOW FOREST FIRE IS CAUSED:Many forest fires start from natural causes such as lightning which set trees on fire. However, rain extinguishes such fires without causing much damage. High atmospheric temperatures and dryness (low humidity) offer favorable circumstance for a fire to start. Man made causes- Fire is caused when a source of fire like naked flame, cigarette or bidi, electric spark or any source of ignition comes into contact with inflammable material.

Other natural causes are the friction of bamboos swaying due to high wind velocity and rolling stones that result in sparks setting off fires in highly inflammable leaf litter on the forest floor.

EFFECT OF FOREST FIRE: loss of valuable timber resources loss of biodiversity and extinction of plants and animals global warming soil erosion affecting productivity of soils and production ozone layer depletion health problems leading to diseases loss of livelihood for tribal and the rural poor people who are directly dependent upon collection of non-timber forest products from forest areas for their livelihood.

FLOODSFlood is overflow of the huge amount of water onto the normally dry land. Flood occurs when the overflowing water submerges land and causes deluge. It is a cruel and violent expression of water.Floods are often deadly, damaging and devastating. They kill lots of people, damage houses and crops, and cause extensive destruction.Heavy rainfalls are one of the major causes of floods. The level of water in rivers or lakes rises due to heavy rainfalls. When the level of water rises above the rive banks or dams, the water starts overflowing, which causes floods

Measures to be taken before a floodLearn warning signs and community alert systems

Stockpile emergency building materials

Install check valves in sewer traps to prevent flood waters from backing up in sewer drains Plan and practice an evacuation route

During a flood:If indoors: Turn on battery operated radio to get latest emergency informationGet pre-assembled emergency suppliesIf told to leave, do so immediately.

If outdoors: Climb to high ground and stay thereAvoid walking through any floodwaters. If in a car, turn around and go another way; if your car stalls, abandon it immediately and climb to higher ground.

After a flood:Don't return home until authorities express express it is safe to do so

Use extreme caution when entering buildings

Inspect foundations for cracks or other damage and examine walls, floors, doors, and windows to make sure that the building is not in danger of collapsing

Do not use appliances or lights until properly checked by an electrician

Open windows and doors to help dry the building

Enter home with caution, checking for electrical shorts and live wires

VOLCANO Volcanic eruptions happen with early warnings unlike earthquakes that are sudden. There are early warning signs before a volcano erupts so there is at least time for residents around the volcano to prepare before the actual eruption occurs. People should know that before a volcano erupts there are warning signs such as rumbling sounds, continuous emissions of steam, increasing temperature around the volcano that results to withering of plants around and unusual behaviors of animals and earthquakes.

Precautionary measures before volcano

Get a pair of goggles and a throw-away breathing mask for each member of the household

Have disaster supplies on hand (flashlight, extra batteries, portable battery-operated radio, first aid kit, emergency food and water, nonelectric can opener, cash and credit cards, and sturdy shoes)

Prioritize the safety of kids before other things. If you have relatives or friends who are far from the volcano, take your children there until such time that your place is safe.

Precautionary measures during Volcano Avoid all low-lying places because lava flows and mudflows are more likely to pass here.

Seek cover in case of ash falls rock falls. Use masks and cover your mouth and nose to avoid breathing in ashes. If you are inside a house; close all doors and windows to avoid ashes from getting inside.Stay in the evacuation center until further instructions. Do not attempt to leave the place unless told to do.

After Volcano:Clean everything around and check all damages incurred.

Use masks while cleaning ash and other debris.

Wait for further announcements related to the volcano activities.

Make sure that your house is still safe for all of you.

TSUNAMI A tsunami is a wave train, or series of waves, generated in a body of water by an impulsive disturbance that vertically displaces the water column. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, explosions, and even the impact of cosmic bodies, such as meteorites, can generate tsunamis.

The following are natural signs of tsunami: Feel the earth shake. A large undersea earthquake may be felt prior to tsunami by an ongoing shaking of the ground in coastal regions. However, you may not feel an earthquake if the source is far away. See the ocean drop. As tsunami approach the shoreline, the sea level may, but not always, recede/drop dramatically before returning as a fast-moving wall of water. Hear an unusual roaring sound. A roaring sound may precede the arrival of tsunami.

Before Tsunami:Be familiar with warning signs (earthquakes, ground rumbling, or rapid rise and fall of coastal waters)

Have disaster supplies on hand (flashlight, extra batteries, portable battery-operated radio, first aid kit, emergency food and water, nonelectric can opener, cash and credit cards, and sturdy shoes)

Ensure all family members know how to respond.

DURING TSUNAMI:Climb to higher ground as soon as warning of a tsunami is released

Stay away from the beach - if you can see the wave, you are too close to escape it.

Do not assume that one wave means the danger is over - the next wave may be larger than the first.

Stay out of the area and do not return until authorities say it is safe to do so

AFTER TSUNAMI:Help injured or trapped persons and give first aid where appropriate.

Stay out of damaged buildings.

Shovel mud while it is still moist to give walls and floors an opportunity to dry.

Enter home with caution, checking for electrical shorts and live wires


NUCLEAR ACCIDENTSAs with any complex industrial system, nuclear power plants aren't foolproof. Though they have a good safety record overall, various kinds of acciden

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