Digital Repositories: Essential Information for Academic Librarians

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Title is ambiguous.1 OutlineTerminologyInstitutional RepositoriesIRs in ColoradoIR softwareStandard identifiers for digital objects in repositoriesDigital preservation for IRsDisciplinary repositoriesData repositoriesOAI-PMHThe future

2 TerminologyInstitutional repository (IR)Disciplinary repository (Subject repository)Green open-accessPost-printAuthor's accepted manuscript (AAM)SPARC author addendumEmbargo periodPre-print serverSherpa RomeoDark archive

An institutional repository is an OA repository that is sponsored by an institution, usually a university or college. Most of its content is open access, but some may be embargoed and some content may be dark archived.

Green open-access refers to author self-archiving of a post-print of a published work (published in a toll-access journal) in an open-access repository. The repository can be institutional or disciplinary. The advantage to the author is that he or she gets to publish in a top toll-access journal and at the same time the content is freely available through the repository. There are many disadvantages to green OA. Because you sign over copyright to the publisher, you need their permission to post the content in the repository. If they grant this permission, they only grant it for the Word version which is not the version that they copyedit and not the version for which they enhance the images, tables, etc. Many also impose embargoes before the author can post the document, six months, one year, two years. Some publishers only allow green OA for institutional repositories, that is, disciplinary repositories are excluded.

A post print is the authors last version of the paper that he or she sends to the journal. It is usually a Word document and incorporates all the changes suggested by peer reviewers. The term authors accepted manuscript (AAM) is synonymous.

The SPARC author addendum The form provides a templated request by authors to add to thecopyright transfer agreementwhich the publisher sends to the author upon acceptance of their work for publication. Authors which use the form typically retain the rights to use their own work without restriction, receive attribution, and toself-archive. The form gives the publisher the right to obtain a non-exclusive right to distribute a work for profit and to receive attribution as the journal of first publication From Wikipedia.

arXive is a preprint server. This tradition started in the particle physics field. In the pre-internet days, because of the long lag time between submitting a manuscript and its eventual publication in a journal, physicists would create mimeographed copies of their manuscripts or pre-prints and share them with colleagues via the mail or at conferences. Eventually these became photocopies, and eventually they became available through telnet and gopher. I can remember helping set up a database at Harvard in 1991 or 2 that was called the Physics Preprint database, and it was metadata for all the preprints. Then the internet came and changed everything. Today the physics preprint database is known as arXive, and its still called a pre-print server, but many people are submitting papers to it and then never submitting them to any journal. So its morphed into a type of publisher. Similar initiatives are being started in other fields. The problem is that much of the content is not peer-reviewed. We know that the major publishers make articles available soon after they are accepted, generally using names like articles in press or something like that, and this is an attempt to compete with pre-print servers.

Sherpa Romeo is a free database that collects green OA policy statements for journals. Authors can use it to determine what they can do with their post-prints.

A dark archive is one that is not accessible at all generally, and may include embargoed material or material being stored for cooperative preservation.

3 Institutional Repositories [1]Directory:

First well talk about institutional repositories. They are often referred to as IRs. Open DOAR is a directory of them. 4 Institutional Repositories [2]: Local instancesColorado / Wyoming Institutional Repositories (selected)University of Colorado Boulder, University of Colorado Colorado Springs, Anschutz Medical Campus, Colorado School of Mines, Colorado Mesa University, and Colorado State University still using Digital Collections of ColoradoWyoming Scholars Repository (Digital Commons)University of Northern Colorado, Denver University and Colorado College and others use the Colorado Alliance's repository service, which is an Islandora implementation.Fort Lewis College has Fort Works, an Eprints implementation

To give some local context, I gathered information about IRs in this region. 5

Institutional Repositories [3]: Institutional Repository Software / Hosting

Digital CommonsDSpaceEPrintsFedora IslandoraInvenio / TINDGreenstoneSobekCM

Here are some of the principal IR companies. Explain hosted versus softwareSome of these are open source.Explain TIND.

6 Institutional Repositories [4]: Digital Preservation

"The Academic Preservation Trust (APTrust) is committed to the creation and management of a sustainable environment for digital preservation. APTrusts aggregated repository will solve one of the greatest challenges facing research libraries and their parent institutions preventing the permanent loss of scholarship and cultural records being produced today.""The Digital Preservation Network (DPN) was formed to ensure that the complete scholarly record is preserved for future generations. DPN uses a federated approach to preservation. The higher education community has created many digital repositories to provide long-term preservation and access. By replicating multiple dark copies of these collections in diverse nodes, DPN protects against the risk of catastrophic loss due to technology, organizational or natural disasters."There are two cooperatives for digital preservation for institutional repositories. Basically they work by having several other libraries host all your content in a dark archive on their servers, and you do the same in return. Academic Preservation Trust is based at UVA. Its members include:Columbia UniversityIndiana UniversityJohns Hopkins UniversityNorth Carolina State UniversityPenn State UniversitySyracuse UniversityUniversity of ChicagoUniversity of CincinnatiUniversity of ConnecticutUniversity of MarylandUniversity of MiamiUniversity of MichiganUniversity of North CarolinaUniversity of Notre DameUniversity of VirginiaVirginia Tech

The digital preservation network does not indicate where it is based but it gives a 434 area code for its telephone number, which is Lynchburg, Virginia, so it looks like Virginia is the hotspot for digital preservation. It has these members:

Member ListingArizona State UniversityBrigham Young UniversityBrown UniversityCalifornia Institute of TechnologyColumbia UniversityCornell UniversityDartmouth CollegeDuke UniversityEmory UniversityHarvard UniversityIndiana UniversityIowa State UniversityJohns Hopkins UniversityKansas State UniversityMassachusetts Institute of TechnologyMichigan State UniversityNew York UniversityNorthwestern UniversityNorth Carolina State UniversityOhio State UniversityPennsylvania State UniversityPrinceton UniversityPurdue UniversityRutgers UniversityStanford UniversitySyracuse UniversityTexas A&MTexas Tech UniversityTufts UniversityTulane UniversityUniversity of AlabamaUniversity of ArizonaUniversity of BuffaloUniversity of California San DiegoUniversity of ChicagoUniversity of FloridaUniversity of Illinois at ChicagoUniversity of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignUniversity of IowaUniversity of KansasUniversity of KentuckyUniversity of MarylandUniversity of MiamiUniversity of MichiganUniversity of MinnesotaUniversity of NebraskaUniversity of New MexicoUniversity of North CarolinaUniversity of Notre DameUniversity of TennesseeUniversity of TexasUniversity of UtahUniversity of VirginiaUniversity of WashingtonUniversity of WisconsinUtah State UniversityVanderbilt UniversityVirginia Polytechnic Institute and State UniversityYale UniversityTexas Digital LibraryCalifornia Digital LibraryJohn D. Evans FoundationAmerican Council on Education



Figshre is unique because it markets to individual scholars. It does also market to institutions. Its owned by Digital Science, which is owned by Macmillan Publishers Limited.8 DataCite is an organization called DataCite that focuses on citing digital objects. They have something called the Metadata Store where you can buy DOIs and assign them to the digital objects in your repository. Increasingly, the quality of a repository will be judged by whether it provides DOIs for its objects and digital preservation for its content. The sponsors of repositories essentially become publishers, and publishers have responsibilities. Publishing is much more than just mounting PDFs or images on the internet; there are many activities that must be carried out to support publishing, if you want to do it right.9 Disciplinary RepositoriesDirectory of disciplinary repositories (Simmons College) =

Some major disciplinary repositories:SSRN (Social Sciences Research Network)RePEc (Research Papers in Economics)E-LIS (Eprints in Library and Information Science)PMC (PubMedCentral)Ag Econ Search (University of Minnesota)

Now lets talk about disciplinary repositories. There is one directory of them that I know of, and it covers most