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Differentiated Instruction and Assessment Presentation- A Crash Course

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Differentiated Instruction is a way of teaching that is strategized

and implemented to reach the diverse needs of all students on a more individualized basis than instruction of the past, with a focus on the large range of backgrounds, learning styles, ability levels, interests, and motivations of students that a teacher is sure to encounter in the classroom. Through teaching in a range of ways, differentiating from student to student, or small groups of students, more students needs will be met, and consequently a higher level of student learning will occur. After all, there is no “one size fits all,” student. Therefore, there is no one way of instructing that will reach every student in the classroom in every lesson, i.e. the need to differentiate.

Tomlinson (2001), states, “At its most basic level, differentiating instruction means ‘shaking up’ what goes on in the classroom so that students have multiple options for taking in information, making sense of ideas, and expressing what they learn. In other words, a differentiated classroom provides different avenues to acquiring content, to processing or making sense of ideas, and to developing products so that each student can learn effectively” (p.1)

Differentiated Instruction has roots in the one-room school houses of yesteryear. “One teacher instructed all the children in the school. He or she taught as many as eight grades at a time. The class was divided into four groups, each with an upper and lower grade” (Buchanan County, Iowa Historical Society, 2007).

Whoa, that’s a broad range of students! How did teachers instruct such a range of kids back then?

They must have differentiated, of course!

The Basics of Differentiated Instruction

Content- input, what students learn

Process- how students go about making sense of ideas and information

Product- output, how students demonstrate what they have learned

Multiple ways of learning need to be provided in the three general elements of curriculum.

Boxed text quoted directly from: Tomlinson, Carol Ann. (2001). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed- Ability Classrooms. 2nd Edition. Alexandria, Virginia. ASCD. ISBN: 0-87120-512-2.

Differentiated Instruction Teachers Should…

•Use assessment, observation, and conversation in understanding student starting points to better proactively plan instruction that is right for an individual

•Use assessment routinely as student abilities can change rates throughout a unit of study

•Collaborate with students so that both teacher and student can determine challenge levels that are appropriate, while also teaching students to be active and responsible for their own learning

•Blend differentiated instruction into whole group, small group, and one-on-one learning environments

(Tomlinson, 2001, p. 4-6)

•21 years as a classroom teacher

•12 years as a program administrator for struggling and advanced learners

•Currently a professor and chair of educational leadership, foundations, and policy at the University of Virginia’s Curry School of Education

Other Notable Names: Susan Demirsky Allan, Diana Lawrence- Brown, Tracey Hall, and Cindy Strickland

•Author of over 200 published works, including her book, How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed-Ability Classrooms

(Tomlinson, 2013)

Differentiated instruction is based on the works of famous leaders in educational history such as Vygotsky, Gardner, Pavlov, etc. as differentiated instruction is composed of elements that have been researched and validated for years, yet not given this title until recent years, when all of these practices began to function simultaneously to create learning that reaches to meet the needs of all students through differentiation.

Validated Elements of Differentiated Instruction Include:

•Using effective classroom management procedures• Promoting student engagement and motivation• Assessing student readiness• Responding to learning styles •Grouping students for instruction• Teaching to the zone of proximal development(Huebner, 2010)

Zone of Proximal Development- the distance between the actual development level and the level of potential development. The zone of proximal development (ZPD) links that which is known to that which is unknown (Subban, 2006, p.3)

•Teachers acknowledge what students already know and scaffold accordingly.

•Teachers guide students to areas of independent learning to reach the next level of ZPD.

•Teachers set goals just above the student’s current level so that they are always being challenged.

•Teachers engage students based on their interests while adapting activities to suit ability levels.

(Tomlinson, 2012)

(Subban, 2006, p.5)

An instructional technique or program that is heavily reliant on one of the intelligences, minimizes opportunities for students who may not possess a propensity to learn in this way. Students who may not achieve in the traditional way, may become lost to both the school and the community at large. Creating opportunities for all students, by enriching the classroom through multiple techniques and assessment forms, develops students and brings out their strengths (Campbell et al., 1999; Gardner, 1999; Green, 1999).

Brain research suggests 3 broad concepts that necessitate a differentiated approach.

• First, the learning environment should be safe and non-threatening to encourage learning. •Second, students must be appropriately challenged, the learner should be comfortable enough to accept the challenge that new learning offers, the content being neither too difficult nor too easy.• Third, the student must be able to make meaning of the ideas and skills through significant association.

(King-Friedrichs, 2001; Tomlinson and Kalbfleisch, 1998 as cited by Subban, 2006, p.5)

•A K-12 study of differentiated instructions application in Alberta consistently yielded positive results, especially for students with mild to severe learning disabilities. These students showed the highest growth over three years.

•Tieso (2005) studied 31 math teachers and 645 students and found that differentiated instruction was effective for keeping high-ability students challenged in heterogeneous classrooms. Students who were taught using a differentiated curriculum that supplemented the textbook curriculum and were placed in various groups according to their performance level demonstrated significantly higher achievement on the post-test than did high-performing students who were taught using the textbook curriculum and whole-class instruction.

(Huebner, 2010)

Baumgartner, Lipowski, and Rush (2003) studied a program to improve reading achievement among elementary and middle school students using differentiated instructional strategies, including flexible grouping, student choice of learning tasks, self-selected reading time, and access to a variety of texts. In all three of the classrooms in the study, the targeted students improved their decoding, phonemic, and comprehension skills. Student attitudes about reading and their own abilities also improved.

(Huebner, 2010)

The use of the one-size-fits-all curriculum no longer meets the needs of the majority of learners. The use of single-paced lessons delivered through a singular instructional approach disregards the different learning styles and interests present in all classrooms. Addressing student differences and interest appears to enhance their motivation to learn while encouraging them to remain committed and stay positive. Ignoring these fundamental differences may result in some students falling behind, losing motivation, and failing to succeed.

(Subban, 2006, p.4)

“Personalization refers to instruction that is paced to learning needs [i.e. individualized], tailored to learning preferences [i.e. differentiated], and tailored to the specific interests of different learners. In an environment that is fully personalized, the learning objectives and content as well as the method and pace may all vary.” —Transforming American Education: Learning Powered by Technology U.S. Department of Education, 2010

(K-12 Blueprint, 2014)

Curriculum and Instruction:2. Strong Instructional Leadership and Effective Instruction-District and school leaders address instructional needs and strengths that are identified through active monitoring of instruction and ongoing use of formative and summative student assessment data. The district ensures that instructional practices are based on evidence of high quality research and on high expectations for ALL students. It also ensures that instruction focuses on clear objectives, uses appropriate educational

materials, and includes a) a range of strategies, technologies, and supplemental materials aligned with students’ developmental levels and learning needs; b) Instructional

practices and activities that build a respectful climate and enable students to assume increasing responsibility for their own learning; and c) use of class time that maximizes student learning. (Common Core State Standards

Initiative, 2016)

Curriculum and Instruction:3. Sufficient Instructional Time- The district allocates sufficient instructional time for all students in core content areas. The allocation of time is based on analyses of student achievement data and focused on improving proficiency.

Student Support:1. Academic Support- For students not yet on track to proficiency in English language arts or mathematics, the district ensures that each school provides additional time and support for individualized instruction through tiered instruction, a data ‐ driven approach to prevention, early detection, and support for students who experience learning or behavioral challenges.

(Common Core State Standards Initiative, 2016)

“ The Standards set grade-specific standards but do not define the intervention methods or materials necessary to support students who are well below or well above grade-level expectations. No set of grade-specific standards can fully reflect the great variety in abilities, needs, learning rates, and achievement levels of students in any given classroom. However, the Standards do provide clear signposts along the way to the goal of college and career readiness for all students. At the same time, all students must have the opportunity to learn and meet the same high standards if they are to access the knowledge and skills necessary in their post-high school lives. Students require a wide-ranging, rigorous academic preparation and, particularly in the early grades, attention to such matters as social, emotional, and physical development and approaches to learning.”

(MDESE, 2011)

(Hope, 2010, as cited by Tomlinson and Parrish, 2013)

1600s- Differentiated Instruction (D.I.) began in one room school houses

Late 1800s- Grading Schools developed as the nation outgrew one room schools, all students were taught at the same pace, based on chronological age

1889- Preston Search in a Colorado grading school began teaching to different ability level children at different paces and encouraging other teachers to do so

1912- Standardized test were created, showing a much larger achievement gap than expected

1912 cont.- Frederic Burke and Mary Ward begin movement to make textbooks self-instructive so children could learn at their own pace

(Gundlach, 2012)

1919- a superintendent in a Chicago suburb started the “Winnetka Plan,”- teachers work to find an educational fit for students based on maturity and readiness, which spread like wildfire into the mid 1920s

William H. Kilpatrick's Project Method stopped the Winnetka Plan, reporting it did not motivate students socially, instruction stopped individualizing

1975- Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) was enacted by Congress in 1975 to ensure that children with disabilities have equal access to a free and appropriate public education

2004-2006- Congress makes revisions to IDEA, giving guidelines for schools to provide Individual Educational Program (IEP) for students requiring special education services. These plans guide teachers as they differentiate instruction for these students in the general education classroom and in the special education classroom. (Gundlach, 2012)

Content ProductProcess

•What subject areas are students involved in and how is it delivered?•Is it appropriate, motivating, engaging, and relevant? Etc.

•What activities are occurring that allow practice and application of content?•Are they appropriate, meet student needs, and give opportunity for growth? Etc.

•How are students demonstrating learning? •Are assessments, assignments, homework, and projects aligned with student needs? Etc.

(Tomlinson, 2001, p. 4)

•Begin by understanding where students are in terms of readiness and proximity to grade level goals of competency and meet students at this level through assessment.

•Be sure to give students authentic assessments, that are telling to what exactly you want to know about the students’ level. Assess students in a way that provides several opportunities for students to demonstrate competency –differentiated assessment.

•Assessment is a jumping off point, but it should remain on-going as students’ levels can change and vary over time. Assessment should be used in conjunction with anything pertinent you learn about the student via observation, conversation, and documentation. Assessments can be informal or formal and include both formative and summative types.

•All levels of learners need goals that are just out of reach, with a scaffolded instruction plan to reach these goals. Once a goal is met, new goals are made. Learning is on-going with a balance of challenges and successes. Students should be striving to reach their full potential with encouragement from educators.

•Don’t dilute goals for struggling learners, assist them in reaching grade level goals.

•Focus on students gaining key ideas and governing principles

•Teach to prior knowledge and teach to relevance

•Use several avenues for students to understand a concept with varied activities, practices, and applications

•Continually raise the ceiling of expectations

•Balance rigor and joy

•Play to student’s strengths, but also promote positivity in times of weakness, so students do not become fearful of failure or taking risks

(Tomlinson, 2001, p. 10-14)

Advanced Learners

•Needs instruction that provides challenges beyond grade level competencies, applying more complex critical thinking

Grade-level Learners

•Needs instruction to remain proficient in grade level skills and competencies while scaffolding to reach goals beyond this level

Struggling Learners

•Needs instruction that scaffolds from what students know to goals of grade-level competencies

Whole Group Small Group Individual

Assessment allows educators to produce small groups, based on needs, that are more practical for an educator to instruct to rather than 30 individual lesson plans.

Meanwhile, dependent on academic situation, educators can still offer varied learning experiences in the below grouping types.

Whole Group

Small Group

Individual

•incorporate different level questioning so all levels can answer •scaffolded introduction to a learning topic. •incorporate multi-learning styles such as auditory and visual elements. •Include classroom interest and relevancies

•Teach to the needs of advanced, grade-level, and struggling learners as each level will need different scaffolding.•Create goals specific for these groups and a plan of attack•Incorporate leveled questioning, group interests, and learning styles

•Tailor to specific needs, motivations, interests, learning styles, etc.•Create goals specific for individuals with selected assessments that allow for individual demonstration of learning

Individual Seat Work

Center Work

Small Group & 1:1 Work

Teacher

Student

•Incorporate time differentiated tasks-some take longer to do the same task or a shorter amount of time. Plan for easy stopping points for children who need more time or areas for quick finishers to expand upon.

•Have “anchor activities” available when students finish early- activities they can always do in the classroom that they know they can turn to, like read silently, a computerized math program, etc.

•Give clear directions and something or someone that can clarify instructions later on if the teacher is busy like typed instructions or another student chosen as a teacher-helper.

•Minimize noise and stray movement by choosing group or seating arrangements, promoting on-task behavior, have a designated spot for turning in work, and having a plan for early finishers.

•Give several avenues for learning that can be explained and understood by students, parents, and staff alike.

(Tomlinson, 2001, p. 32-38)

Allow students opportunities to demonstrate responsibility for their own learning.

Learning should be cooperative between the student and the teacher- give them self-reflective skills, cue them in on where they are in terms of readiness and level, allow them to monitor their own progress, etc.

Explicitly instruct and model appropriate whole and small group, and individual behaviors so students understand the responsibility they have in acting like a student who is also responsible for their learning.

•Make everyone feel welcomed, needed, and able to contribute to others feeling welcomed and needed

•Mutual Respect is nonnegotiable

•Students feel safe not only physically, but emotionally in sharing their thoughts, ideas, and questions without risk of judgment, embarrassment, failure, etc.

•Each student is treated fairly in that they each receive what they need to grow

•There are high expectations for growth

•Students are coached to contribute to classroom activities meaningfully

(Tomlinson, 2001, p.21-26)

Students work on learning goals

Teachers assist students in achieving learning goals

Students exert reasonable effort academically

Students attain success after reasonable effort

Students are treated fairly in receiving instruction that is right for them

Students act responsibly in all learning environments

(Tomlinson, 2001)

-Facilitator-Coach-Mentor

The role of the teacher is to assist in learning, not dominate it. Give students the tools they need to succeed, with encouragement, a devised plan, and a back up plan. Differentiated Classroom Teachers are “organizers of learning opportunities” in a student-centered structure. The learning stems from students, not vice versa.

Think of the teacher as a coach-He/she has goals for the team, must understand what motivates the players, gives practice for skill improvement, challenges and even makes them sweat, calls time-outs for strategy huddles, but the students are the real players in the game.

(Tomlinson, 2001, p. 19)

Three main areas in which students guide differentiation are “readiness, interest, and learning profile.”

“A good readiness match pushes the student a little beyond his or her comfort zone and then provides support in bridging the gap.”

Teachers should “have a comprehensive guide for planning and monitoring the effectiveness of differentiated curriculum.”

Think about what has made a lesson differentiated. Consider the following areas in which differentiation can take place as shown in Tomlinson’s “equalizer” on the following slide. (Tomlinson, 2001, p.47)

(Tomlinson, 2001, p. 45)

(Tomlinson, 2001, p. 45-46)

(Tomlinson, 2001, p.45)

(Tomlinson, 2001 as cited by Tangient LLC. 2016)

Student interest and student choice are two of the most

powerful strategies for fostering academic motivation

Planning Lessons by student interest gives teachers a “hook”

for engaging students in the topic.

4 Steps for Building Lessons Based on Student Interests

1.) Help students understand the relationship between school and their own desires the learn2.) Teach connectedness between all learning3.) Bridge unfamiliar concepts with familiar skills and ideas4.) Incorporate research proven motivational strategies

(Tomlinson, 2001, p.52)

(Tomlinson, 2001, p.53)

Interest Areas Interest Areas

Fine Arts

Photography

Painting

Sculpture

Literature

Poetry

Prose

Fiction

Nonfiction

Technology

Athletics

Sciences

Life

Physical

Sports/ Recreation

Crafts

Mathematics

History

Social Sciences

Politics/Government

Business

Music

Song

Dance

Composition

Performance

Theatre/ Film/ TV

Travel/ Culture

People

Heroes

Villains

Young People

Modes of Expression Modes of Expression

Oral

Speech

Seminar

Drama

Symposium

Written

Creative

Expository

Design/ Built

Display

Model

Artistic

Graphics

Painting

Photography

Illustration

Abstract

Ideas

Plans

Theories

Service in Community

Modes of

Expression

Modes of

Expression

Oral

Speech

Seminar

Drama

Symposium

Written

Creative

Expository

Design/ Built

Display

Model

Artistic

Graphics

Painting

Photography

Illustration

Abstract

Ideas

Plans

Theories

Service in

Community

Interest Areas Interest Areas

Fine Arts

Photography

Painting

Sculpture

Literature

Poetry

Prose

Fiction

Nonfiction

Technology

Athletics

Sciences

Life

Physical

Sports/ Recreation

Crafts

Mathematics

History

Social Sciences

Politics/Government

Business

Music

Song

Dance

Composition

Performance

Theatre/ Film/ TV

Travel/ Culture

People

Heroes

Villains

Young People

(Taken directly from Tomlinson, 2001, p. 56)

Will use research to produce a Civil War reenactment with biographies of major historical figures

Will use research to create costumes and a realistic fiction story to read aloud and present on the role of women during the Civil War

Will use research on topography to create an accurate map of a historic area of the Civil War

Interested in using technology to create online simulation

Interested in geography and connecting to a previous map study

Group 1 Group 3Group 2

Interested in archived diary entries of women and crafts

TEACHCER

Learning profile describes the ways in which individuals learn best. “A student’s learning style, intelligence preference, gender, and culture can influence learning profile” (Tomlinson, 2001, p. 60). It is an educators job to assist students in finding which modes create the most effective learning experience for each student and to offer those options. “Common sense, experience, and research suggest to us that when teachers tap into routes that promote efficient and effective learning for students, results are better” (Tomlinson, 2001, p. 60).

Group Orientation- independent/self-orientationgroup/peer orientationadult orientationcombination

Cognitive Style- creative/conformingessence/factswhole-to-part/part-to-wholeexpressive/controllednonlinear/linearinductive/deductivepeople-oriented/task or object-orientedconcrete/abstractcollaboration/competitioninterpersonal/introspectiveeasily distracted/long attention spangroup achievement/personal achievementoral/visual/kinestheticreflective/action-oriented

Learning Environment -quiet/noisewarm/coolstill/mobileflexible/fixed“busy”/“spare”

Intelligence Preference- analyticpracticalcreativeverbal/linguisticlogical/mathematicalspatial/visualbodily/kinestheticmusical/rhythmicinterpersonalintrapersonalnaturalistexistential

Learning ProfileFactors

(Tomlinson, 2001a)

Traditional Teacher Differentiated Instruction Teacher

Teaches in a one-size fits all style – all students

receive the same assignments during each

assignment in each subject area

Teaches students from the point of which grade-

level classroom they are in- if in 3rd grade all

students start with a 3rd grade curriculum.

Classroom is teacher-centered- teacher has full

control over the classroom and its activities

Teacher monitors student learning and makes

executive decisions about their learning

Assigns standardized assessments regularly that

ask students to demonstrate learning in one way.

Teacher scaffolds learning to meet grade-level

standards, before moving on

Students view their work indifferently- just

another day of mandatory work!

Teaches to different modalities, interests, and

preferences

Teaches students from the level in which they are

at

Classroom is student-centered- students

collaborate and communicate with the teacher to

find activities that work towards their individual

learning goals.

Students are responsible for monitoring their own

progress and being involved in the growth process

Assigns differentiated assessments regularly, so

students have more than one, maybe 3,4,or 5

ways to demonstrate learning

Teacher scaffolds learning to assist students in

reaching higher and higher goals of skill level

attainment

Students develop their interests in topics and

view learning in a positive manner

Implementation of Differentiated Instruction is about proactive planning- but begin at your own pace. Its implementation doesn’t have to be in full once you’ve decided to incorporate it in your classroom. Here are some tips….

•You can start by practicing managing groups

•You can go further by then creating small-group tasks tailored to interest, readiness, or talents

•Try beginning in the subject area you like the most, you may find that to be the easiest starting point

•Once you begin in one area, master doing so until it feels natural, then try adding another area

•Create a timeline for yourself that is doable, approachable, and realistic for you.

Spend 1 marking period observing students and documenting areas change can take place

Pre-assess before 2-4 units to gain understanding in a general sense of what students do and do not know

Start small , it can lead to a big difference. Try to gather small groups of 5-6 students every day or two to pick their brains, reteach in a new way, or extend a topic

Familiarize yourself with different low prep and high prep differentiated instruction strategies

(Tomlinson, 2012)

(Pinterest.com, n.d.)

Year 1: Choose 3-4 low prep strategies to implement regularly until they become second nature. Each marking period chose 1 high prep strategy to implement regularly until it becomes second nature. By the end of the year you will have 3-4 low prep strategies and 4 high prep strategies mastered.

Year 2: Choose another 3-4 low prep strategies to implement. During each marking period polish your high prep strategy and add 1 more. By the end of this year you will have mastered 8 low prep and 8 high prep strategies.

Year 3-5: Continue adding low and high prep strategies as described above until they become second nature to you. Remember Rome wasn’t built in a day.

(Tomlinson, 2012)

Though this is not a misconception, it is a possible complaint. Differentiation is hard because it takes time and energy to master. However, there are many areas of instruction that are hard work. As we encourage effort in our students we must also encourage and foster it in ourselves. It is a teaching strategy that makes sense and is worth the while in terms of student achievement and student engagement in their learning. If we give up we will never grow as teachers.

Solutions:Give each child 2 grades: One traditional, one differentiated•2 letter grades•1 traditional letter, one number grade 1-3 representing working above, on, or below grade levelGive portfolios or additional information with traditional report card•Folder of student work showing progress•Running Record•Combination of observational notes, assignments, work samples, goal lists, etc.

Traditional grading reflects student performance compared to others in the same grade. Differentiated grading would reflect performance of students “against themselves” (Tomlinson, 2001, p.93). The grade shows progress in an individual goal setting system rather than how one rates among peers (Tomlinson, 2001, p. 93).

(Tomlinson, 2001, p. 93-95)

“Differentiated Assessment is an ongoing process through which teachers gather data before, during, and after instruction using multiple formative and summative tools” (Chapman and King, 2012, loc. 235).

To differentiate assessment, the teacher must evaluate the learning situation and provide an assessment tool that is right for the individual student based on information gathered with student interest and learning profile in mind. Not every student will respond to traditional assessment methods such as standardized testing. Therefore, providing a multitude of assessment options for students to demonstrate what they know and what they need work on will more accurately inform the teacher which students have reached mastery and which have not in order to continue curriculum planning.

“It takes more than one assessment tool to accurately gauge individual learning” (Chapman and King, 2012, loc. 227).

Examples of Different Assessment dependent on student interest•Create a PowerPoint presentation•Design a webpage•Create a game•Make a movie/ video•Write a song•Write a story

Strategies that include different planned assessments within•Assessment Choice Boards•Cubing•Assessment Agendas•Stations, Centers, Learning Zones

•Partners- quizzing each other, partner quizzes, think-pair-share•Group- creating a group project through cooperative learning strategies•Individual assessment- self or teacher assessed

Students can either be•Self-assessed or•Teacher assessed

(Chapman and King, 2012 loc. 2188- 2454)

Tiered Model or Adjustable Assignment Model- Assignments designed to fit particular identified groups who need different learning experiences. The group members are fluid depending on mastery and which group they fit best in considering learning needs.•Level I- Curriculum Rewinding•Level II- Grade-Level•Level III- Curriculum Fast Forwarding

Curriculum Compacting Model- customized instructional plan designed to extend learning during portions of the general curriculum that they are permitted to skip due to mastery before instruction. During this time the compacted student might begin an accelerated program, open-ended project, collaborate with other field experts, and so on. The student will create a contract with the teacher of challenging tasks.

(Chapman and King, 2012, loc. 2553-2654)

(Chapman and King, 2012, loc. 2662-2704)

Academic Contract Model- a written work agreement between teacher and student that identifies specific objectives and activities to be acted upon during a certain period of time that is differentiated for student interest and modalities while aligning with current standards. The contract must be assessed for value in student learning and is independent to student needs.

Project- Based Model- a teacher approved project that allows students to demonstrate understanding through a creative outlet that is challenging yet the student is capable of independently. The project could be anything that extends and enriches learning such as making a movie or building a working model of whatever the topic of study may be as well as many more options.

Problem- Based Model- differentiated by giving students opportunities to select an investigative problem to explore, investigate, and research within the topic of study. Chapman and King, 2012, loc. 2704- 2793

Compacted Student- In or Out of the Classroom

Whole Group Instruction

Followed by Independent/ Small Work

Teacher Instruction &

Consulting

Compacted Student works independently or with a support teacher (while consulting on and off with the classroom teacher) to create a how-to presentation on dividing fractions using mathematics computer software

Whole class is presented with a multiplying fractions lesson followed by an investigative practice

“Selecting the most productive tool provides the essential information for strategic planning” (Chapman and King, 2012, loc. 2801). Preassessment: differentiate to draw out attitudes and feelings about a unit to come, students’ level of interest, and their prior knowledge, while using this opportunity to illicit excitement about the topic.Formative Assessment: differentiate to ensure that all students are given fair and effective ways to show what they know and what they need to work on in a particular lesson out of a unit of a skill set.

Summative Assessment: differentiate in multiple ways so that students can present a cumulative understanding of a unit, while evaluating the levels met in Bloom’s taxonomy. Have they been given proper opportunities to demonstrate mastery?

(Chapman and King, 2012 and Trainers Warehouse Blog, 2011)

•Information presented as nonthreatening or insignificant will be discarded.•Information will enter working memory when deemed important or valuable by the student, not the teacher.•When students have opportunities to process information in ways that are meaningful to them, they can enter the information in working memory which can make retrieval easier and automatic. Therefore, careful planning in how information is presented to individuals is key!

Traditional Classroom Assessment Effective Differentiated Classroom Assessment

•Students view assessment as another mandatory part of their day. •Assessment is viewed by the majority (in my experience) negatively or indifferently, “oh no, another test!” •The teacher models positive assessment climate through voice tone, high expectations, enthusiasm, interest, etc. (loc. 663) •Students know that it is an expectation for all members of the class to participate in assessment taking. •Teachers let upset, frustrated students take a break or reinforce that it is an expectation to finish to the best of their ability. •Teachers praise those who clearly demonstrate good effort. •Teachers instruct students in assessment vocabulary and to build upon prior knowledge and making connections to sort through an assessment task or question (loc. 705). •Assessments are primarily standardized and every student in the class will receive the same assessment unless specifically required not to via I.E.P. information. They are all aimed to be challenging yet goal attainable to students that fall in the “at grade-level” category. •Teachers reinforce behavior expectations (loc. 779). •Teachers celebrate after a large assessment such as MCAS or PARCC. •On occasion students have an opportunity to go over their results. •Teachers identify physical areas not conducive to assessment- taking throughout the room, however all students are expected to take assessments from their desks, the majority of the time. •The teacher makes plans for the assessment climate, sometimes ahead of time, sometimes on the fly.

•Students view assessment activities as opportunities to demonstrate what they know and celebrate it (loc. 656). •Assessment is viewed positively by students (loc. 656). •The teacher models positive assessment climate through voice tone, high expectations, enthusiasm, interest, etc. (loc. 663). •Students feel a part of the learning community (loc. 663). •Teachers monitors for individual feelings (loc. 670). •Teachers models risk-taking strategies and promote emotional bravery in academic situations as well as effort (loc. 694). •Teachers instruct students in assessment vocabulary and to build upon prior knowledge and making connections to sort through an assessment task or question (loc. 705). •Assessments are designed tasks at the student’s success level (loc. 714). •Instruction and assessment is based on real-world relevance (loc. 724). •Teachers incorporate student interests into assessments (loc. 771). •Teachers reinforce behavior expectations (loc. 779). •Teachers generate anticipation and excitement before, during, and after assessment and celebrate after a large assessment (loc. 795). •Students have opportunities to view and go over results. •Teacher and students identify physical areas that are not conducive to assessment-taking (loc. 835). •Teachers and students make goals to improve assessment climate (loc. 852).

Traditional Classroom Assessment Effective Differentiated Classroom Assessment•Students view assessment as another mandatory part of their day. •Assessment is viewed by the majority (in my experience) negatively or indifferently, “oh no, another test!” •The teacher models positive assessment climate through voice tone, high expectations, enthusiasm, interest, etc. (loc. 663) •Students know that it is an expectation for all members of the class to participate in assessment taking. •Teachers let upset, frustrated students take a break or reinforce that it is an expectation to finish to the best of their ability. •Teachers praise those who clearly demonstrate good effort.

•Students view assessment activities as opportunities to demonstrate what they know and celebrate it (loc. 656). •Assessment is viewed positively by students (loc. 656). •The teacher models positive assessment climate through voice tone, high expectations, enthusiasm, interest, etc. (loc. 663). •Students feel a part of the learning community (loc. 663). •Teachers monitors for individual feelings (loc. 670). •Teachers models risk-taking strategies and promote emotional bravery in academic situations as well as effort (loc. 694).

(Chapman and King, 2012)

Traditional Classroom Assessment Effective Differentiated Classroom Assessment•Assessments are primarily standardized and every student in the class will receive the same assessment unless specifically required not to via I.E.P. information. They are all aimed to be challenging yet goal attainable to students that fall in the “at grade-level” category. •Teachers reinforce behavior expectations (loc. 779). •Teachers celebrate after a large assessment such as MCAS or PARCC. •On occasion students have an opportunity to go over their results. •Teachers identify physical areas not conducive to assessment- taking throughout the room, however all students are expected to take assessments from their desks, the majority of the time. •The teacher makes plans for the assessment climate, sometimes ahead of time, sometimes on the fly.

•Teachers instruct students in assessment vocabulary and to build upon prior knowledge and making connections to sort through an assessment task or question (loc. 705). •Assessments are designed tasks at the student’s success level (loc. 714). •Instruction and assessment is based on real-world relevance (loc. 724). •Teachers incorporate student interests into assessments (loc. 771). •Teachers reinforce behavior expectations (loc. 779). •Teachers generate anticipation and excitement before, during, and after assessment and celebrate after a large assessment (loc. 795). •Students have opportunities to view and go over results. •Teacher and students identify physical areas that are not conducive to assessment-taking (loc. 835). •Teachers and students make goals to improve assessment climate (loc. 852).

(Chapman and King, 2012)

Differentiated Assessment!

(Tangient LLC. (20161).

Traditional Classroom Assessment Effective Differentiated Classroom Assessment

Students view assessment as another mandatory part of their day.

Assessment is viewed by the majority (in my experience)

negatively or indifferently, “oh no, another test!”

The teacher models positive assessment climate through voice

tone, high expectations, enthusiasm, interest, etc. (loc. 663)

Students know that it is an expectation for all members of the

class to participate in assessment taking.

Teachers let upset, frustrated students take a break or reinforce

that it is an expectation to finish to the best of their ability.

Teachers praise those who clearly demonstrate good effort.

Teachers instruct students in assessment vocabulary and to build

upon prior knowledge and making connections to sort through an

assessment task or question (loc. 705).

Assessments are primarily standardized and every student in the

class will receive the same assessment unless specifically

required not to via I.E.P. information. They are all aimed to be

challenging yet goal attainable to students that fall in the “at

grade-level” category.

Teachers reinforce behavior expectations (loc. 779).

Teachers celebrate after a large assessment such as MCAS or

PARCC.

On occasion students have an opportunity to go over their results.

Teachers identify physical areas not conducive to assessment-

taking throughout the room, however all students are expected to

take assessments from their desks, the majority of the time.

The teacher makes plans for the assessment climate, sometimes

ahead of time, sometimes on the fly.

Students view assessment activities as opportunities to

demonstrate what they know and celebrate it (loc. 656).

Assessment is viewed positively by students (loc. 656).

The teacher models positive assessment climate through voice

tone, high expectations, enthusiasm, interest, etc. (loc. 663).

Students feel a part of the learning community (loc. 663).

Teachers monitors for individual feelings (loc. 670).

Teachers models risk-taking strategies and promote emotional

bravery in academic situations as well as effort (loc. 694).

Teachers instruct students in assessment vocabulary and to build

upon prior knowledge and making connections to sort through an

assessment task or question (loc. 705).

Assessments are designed tasks at the student’s success level

(loc. 714).

Instruction and assessment is based on real-world relevance (loc.

724).

Teachers incorporate student interests into assessments (loc.

771).

Teachers reinforce behavior expectations (loc. 779).

Teachers generate anticipation and excitement before, during,

and after assessment and celebrate after a large assessment (loc.

795).

Students have opportunities to view and go over results.

Teacher and students identify physical areas that are not

conducive to assessment-taking (loc. 835).

Teachers and students make goals to improve assessment climate

(loc. 852).

Traditional Classroom Assessment Differentiated Assessment•Teachers collect data to identify student understanding, intervention needs, and learning styles (loc. 881). •Information is gathered before, during and after a unit of study (loc. 901). •Assessments are standardized, they include some variance in learning styles, but overall is designed in a one-size fits all model. •One assessment tool is used in a particular assessment, or occasionally two or three may be used that are standardized. •Teachers tend to students who are obviously upset, frustrated, or crying during an assessment, otherwise urges students to push forward to meet expectations. •Teachers ask for students’ input and discuss learning styles, strengths, and modality preferences (loc. 950).

•Teachers collect data to identify student understanding, intervention needs, and learning styles (loc. 881). •Information is gathered before, during and after a unit of study (loc. 901). •Assessments incorporate interests and have learning style and modality preferences at the forefront (loc. 928). •Several assessment tools are available for each assessment based on learning styles. •Teachers pay attention to emotional intelligences and foster metacognitive skills in Stemberg’s Triarchical Theory (loc. 978). •Teachers ask for students’ input and discuss learning styles, strengths, modality preferences (loc. 950).

(Chapman and King, 2012)

Traditional Classroom Assessment

Differentiated Assessment

•Teachers collect data to identify student understanding, intervention needs, and learning styles (loc. 881). •Information is gathered before, during and after a unit of study (loc. 901). •Assessments are standardized, they include some variance in learning styles, but overall is designed in a one-size fits all model. •One assessment tool is used in a particular assessment, or occasionally two or three may be used that are standardized. •Teachers tend to students who are obviously upset, frustrated, or crying during an assessment, otherwise urges students to push forward to meet expectations. •Teachers ask for students’ input and discuss learning styles, strengths, and modality preferences (loc. 950). •Teachers provide journal writing and opinion assignments that give students opportunities to write about their interests and demonstrate learning styles. •Teachers ask open-ended questions and give specific praise and feedback (loc. 1039). •Teachers scaffold in effort to achieve more sophisticated assessment responses (loc. 1053). •Teachers go over results based on scoring rubrics, expectations, and so on so students can see where and why they have made an error and what they can do to correct this.

•Teachers collect data to identify student understanding, intervention needs, and learning styles (loc. 881). •Information is gathered before, during and after a unit of study (loc. 901). •Assessments incorporate interests and have learning style and modality preferences at the forefront (loc. 928). •Several assessment tools are available for each assessment based on learning styles. •Teachers pay attention to emotional intelligences and foster metacognitive skills in Stemberg’s Triarchical Theory (loc. 978). •Teachers ask for students’ input and discuss learning styles, strengths, modality preferences (loc. 950). •Teachers provide extensive learning style inventories, or give assignment opportunities that express these styles such as journal writing or surveying (loc. 1024). •Teachers ask open-ended questions and give specific praise and feedback (loc. 1039). •Teachers scaffold in effort to achieve more sophisticated assessment responses (loc. 1053). •Teachers collaborate with students to understand where gaps in learning are, encourage self- reflection, and allow students to take ownership of their learning (loc 1053).

Traditional Classroom Assessment Differentiated Assessment•Teachers collect data to identify student understanding, Teachers provide journal writing and opinion assignments that give students opportunities to write about their interests and demonstrate learning styles. •Teachers ask open-ended questions and give specific praise and feedback (loc. 1039). •Teachers scaffold in effort to achieve more sophisticated assessment responses (loc. 1053). •Teachers go over results based on scoring rubrics, expectations, and so on so students can see where and why they have made an error and what they can do to correct this.

•Teachers provide extensive learning style inventories, or give assignment opportunities that express these styles such as journal writing or surveying (loc. 1024). •Teachers ask open-ended questions and give specific praise and feedback (loc. 1039). •Teachers scaffold in effort to achieve more sophisticated assessment responses (loc. 1053). •Teachers collaborate with students to understand where gaps in learning are, encourage self-reflection, and allow students to take ownership of their learning (loc 1053).

(Chapman and King, 2012)

Carolyn Chapman •International educational consultant, author, and teacher •Written many books about differentiated instruction, multiple intelligences, and multiple assessments

Rita King• 20 year principal and director of Middle Tennessee State University's teacher training program•Adjunct professor in the Department of Educational Leadership at the university and an international education consultant. (Amazon.com, Inc., 2016)

(Amazon.com, Inc., 2016a)

Professional Learning Communities and Differentiated Instruction Educators have the same objective: an ongoing focus to improve and stretch student learning and potential through best practices with short and long-term goals in mind.

PLCs support the idea that there is no one-size-fits-all model of instruction. “There is no uniform or consistent strategy for responding to students who do not learn” (Dufour, Dufour, and Eaker, 2008, p. 243). Dufour, Dufour, and Eaker (2008) state PLCs are in place to ensure extra time, added support, and various learning opportunities are given to students to succeed (p.255). Also, student activity should be fluid “depending on their level of demonstrated proficiency,” while ensuring it is done in a “timely, directive, and systematic way” (Dufour, Dufour, and Eaker, 2008, p.254-255).

Through PLCs staff members are able to share differentiation strategies and facilitate problem-solving discussions, gather data on differentiations effectiveness, and have a support system that is consistent and driven by this best practice.

(Dufour, Dufour, and Eaker, 2008)

•Differentiation builds intrinsic motivation as students engage in tasks that are personally meaningful to them•Foster autonomy through choice and giving students a level of control over their own learning

•Differentiation supports self-efficacy when students are given activities they can do at their skill & pace level•Skill specific self-worth can be raised when learning is scaffolded properly by student need

(Anderman and Anderman, 2012)

Self-Determination Theorist list 3 Basic Needs

of Humans:•Autonomy:•Competence:•Relatedness:

As Connected to Differentiation…

•Autonomy: Students are able to develop learning through self-directed outlets, expanding or focusing on a topic, completing assignments in ways that match their learning profiles, and participating in assessments that are individualized to show what they know•Competence: Students’ level & pace is used in planning, their growth and level is recognized as fluid, and learning is scaffolded regardless of starting point so all students are held at a high expectation for learning•Relatedness: Assignments build on prior knowledge and educators connect past learning experience to new and unfamiliar topics with familiar. (Anderman and Anderman, 2012, p. 5)

•Parents hold valuable information on student’s likes and dislikes, strengths and weaknesses, and areas they and their child wish to improve on or learn more about, etc.•Parents can inform teachers when assignments are a good fit for their child•Parents can add interest and relatedness by connecting school content to activities outside of school.•Parents can keep consistent academic expectations in the student’s home

When educators open the lines of communication with parents about the benefits of differentiation both parties

can work together to see a student succeed.

References

Amazon.com, Inc. (2016). Carolyn Chapman. Retrieved from http://www.amazon.com/Carolyn-Chapman/e/B001IOFI2W

Amazon.com, Inc. (2016a). Differentiated Instructional Strategies: One Tool Doesn’t Fit All, 2nd Edition. Retrieved from https://www.amazon.com/Differentiated-Assessment-Strategies-Tool-Doesnt/dp/1412996643?ie=UTF8&ref_=asap_bc

Anderman, Eric M., Anderman, Lynley Hicks. (2014). Classroom Motivation. Second Edition. Pearson Education, Inc. United States of America. Print, ISBN-13: 978-0-13-301788-5

Bing. (2016). Yahoo! Search Web Images. Retrieved from https://search.yahoo.com/web?fr=yfp-t

Buchanan County Historical Society. (2007). Links of Interest: One–room School. Buchanan County, Iowa Historical Society. Retrieved from http://buchanancountyhistory.com/oneroomschool.php

Chapman, Carolyn, King, Rita. (2012). Differentiated Assessment Strategies: One Tool Doesn’t Fit All. 2nd Edition. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press. (ISBN-13: 978-1412996648). Kindle version.

Common Core State Standards Initiative. (2016). CCR and Grade specific Standards. Common Core State Standards Initiative: Preparing America’s Students for College and Career. Retrieved from http://www.corestandards.org/ELA-Literacy/introduction/key-design-consideration/

Dufour, Richard, Dufour, Rebecca, Eaker, Robert. (2008) Revisiting Professional Learning Communities. Institute Edition. United States of America. Solution Tree Press. ISBN: 978-1-934009-32-1

Gundlach, Mary. (2012). The Roots of Differentiated Instruction in Teaching. Bright Hub Education. Retrieved from http://www.brighthubeducation.com/teaching-methods-tips/106939-history-of-differentiated-instruction/

References Continued

Huebner, Tracy A. (2010). What Research Says About Differentiated Instruction. Educational Leadership. V. 67, N. 5, P. 79-81. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/educational-leadership/feb10/vol67/num05/Differentiated-Learning.aspx

K-12 Blueprint. (2014). Common Core Standards and Differentiated Instruction. K-12 Blueprint: A Planning Resource for Personalizing Learning. Retrieved from https://www.k12blueprint.com/sites/default/files/CC-Differentiated-Instruction.pdf

Massachusetts Department of Elementary and Secondary Education [MDESE]. (2011). District Standards and Indicators. Retrieved from http://www.mass.gov/edu/docs/ese/accountability/district-standards-indicators.pdf

Pinterest.com. (n.d.). Differentiated Instruction. Retrieved from https://www.pinterest.com/pin/83246293086802080/

Subban, Pearl. (2006). Differentiated Instruction: A Research basis. International Education Journal. P. 935-947. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ854351.pdf

Tangient LLC. (2016). Differentiating by Readiness. DiPLN.Wikispaces.com Retrieved from http://dipln.wikispaces.com/ch.+3+differentiating+by+readiness

Tangient LLC. (2016a). Classroom Assessment Theory into Practice- Assessment in Differentiated Learning. Retrieved from http://classroom-assessment-theory-into-practice.wikispaces.com/Assessment+Strategies+in+Differential+Learning

Tomlinson, Carol Ann. (2001). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed- Ability Classrooms. 2nd Edition. Alexandria, Virginia. ASCD. ISBN: 0-87120-512-2.

References Continued

Tomlinson, Carol Ann. (2001a). How to Differentiate Instruction in Mixed- Ability Classrooms, 2nd Edition: Chapter 10. The How To’s of Planning Lessons Differentiated by Learning Profile. Retrieved from http://www.ascd.org/publications/books/101043/chapters/The-How-To's-of-Planning-Lessons-Differentiated-by-Learning-Profile.aspx

Tomlinson, Carol Ann. (2012). Getting Started on Differentiated Instruction. [Video]. Youtube.com, Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LGYa6ZacUTM&feature=youtu.be&list=PLOXUrDMSVPHnDeKVZTOfi2pjWMegTcRCD

Tomlinson, Carol Ann, Parrish, William Clay. (2013). Instructional Strategies that Invite Differentiation. MAIS Conference PowerPoint Presentation. Retrieved from http://caroltomlinson.com/handouts/Strategies%20for%20Differentiation.pdf

Trainers Warehouse Blog. (2011). Energize Learning! Blog: Bloom’s Taxonomy- One step at a Time. Retrieved from http://blog.trainerswarehouse.com/blooms-taxonomy-one-step-at-a-time/