Presentation for a doctoral seminar at the Glasgow Caledonian University Glasgow, UK, March 25, 2010. The argument put forth is that open, distributed infrastructures are the way go for networked learning, particularly in the non-formal settings that are needed for professional development to thrive.
- 1. Designing open infrastructures forprofessional development Peter B. Sloep Supporting Sustainable eLearning ForumMarch 25, 2010 Glasgow Sunday, March 28, 2010
2. overview the problem - six use cases inspiration - open source networks a hypothesis- Learning Networks performance tests - design research design requirements - two scenarios break discussion - summarise, discuss, report backSunday, March 28, 2010 3. 1the problemsix use cases Sunday, March 28, 2010 4. update &upgrade James is a chemical engineerworking for an SME. He wantsto pursue a career as a watermanager with the local waterboard. He therefore needs to update and upgrade his skills. Sunday, March 28, 2010 5. extend Jean, a lawyer working for apharmaceutical company, nds out she needs to expand her knowledge in order to get a more thorough understanding of the science part of the company,in particular about biotechnology.Sunday, March 28, 2010 6. internalknowledgesharing/building A multinational wants to do awaywith its travelling road show of trainers and stimulate itsemployees to study online. They also want to stimulate the build- up of a collective knowledge baseand stimulate the emergence ofcommunities of practice.Sunday, March 28, 2010 7. innovation The association of publiclibraries wants to rethink its role in society and retrain its personel in the process. Collaborative open innovation andcreativity as well as joint sensemaking and learning are key. Sunday, March 28, 2010 8. keeping up todate An SME wants to innovateconstantly and therefore needsto keep its personel up to date.Collaborative open innovation and creativity as well as joint sensemaking and learning are key. Sunday, March 28, 2010 9. world-wide knowledge sharingA large international agencywants to distribute existingknowledge on a particular topic more equitably. Not duplicatingexisting work and world-wide knowledge sharing are key. Sunday, March 28, 2010 10. 2inspiration open source networks Sunday, March 28, 2010 11. Internet technologiesradically undermineorganizational structuresbecause they reduce thecost of communicationsand transactions towardan asymptote of zero (p.171). Hence, go online. Sunday, March 28, 2010 12. This enables theformation of episodiccommunities on demand,so-called virtualorganizations that cometogether frictionlessly fora particular task and thenredistribute to the nexttask just as smoothly. Hence, use a networkedapproach. Sunday, March 28, 2010 13. There are deeper levels to the book micro-foundations, what drives people:pride; being an innovator; self-promotion;doing things together macro-organisation, how to make itwork: co-ordination (individualincentives, shared norms, and leadership),cope with complexity (division of labour)Weber, S. (2004). The Success of Open Source. Cambridge Mass.: HarvardUniversity Press.Sunday, March 28, 2010 14. 3 a hypothesisLearning Networks Sunday, March 28, 2010 15. a hypothesis All use cases may be addressed by workingwith Learning Networks, online, socialnetworks that have been modelled afternetworks for open source softwaredevelopment.Sunday, March 28, 2010 16. formalnon-formalinformallearninglearning learninginitialordinary rareout of scopeeducationeducationoccasionpost-initial continuous lifelongout of scope education educationlearningSunday, March 28, 2010 17. A Learning Network = DFan online social network that is specically designed to support lifelong learning and lifelong professional development(note: emphasis on post-initial education) Sunday, March 28, 2010 18. 4performance tests design research Sunday, March 28, 2010 19. theoretical modelsplay online gamesdo nothingIaIbS1S2S3healthy Icout of addicted balance therapy Sunday, March 28, 2010 20. such models are tested by predicting futurebehaviour (a hypothesis) and comparing itwith actual behaviour (data) this leads to conrmation, rejection, butusually adaptation of the model Sunday, March 28, 2010 21. a Learning Network is a natural system, butone that is designed for a purpose: artefact its design is based on conrmed knowledgeand to the extent that that is missing, onassumed knowledge (and we never have fullknowledge) so artefacts may fail to do what they weredesigned to doSunday, March 28, 2010 22. targeted state of the system (artefact) is different than the obtained (observed) state St SiSoIthe existence of a difference means: i) our theoretical model is wrong ii) our assumptions are wrong Sunday, March 28, 2010 23. unlike natural systems artefacts are testedfor performance (so you need criteria!) testing leads to rejection, acceptance, butusually redesign Sunday, March 28, 2010 24. design for sociallearning teacherteacher learning goals to bedesign perception activitiesachieved teacherstudent learninggoalsdesign perception activitiesachieved Wiebe Bijker: the interpretative exibility of artefacts(philosophy of technology) Sunday, March 28, 2010 25. 5design requirements two scenarios Sunday, March 28, 2010 26. support services online proling content matchinge-portfolio coaching & tutoring (peer,teacher) assessment of (prior)learning authoringcollaboration support network visualisation(scheduling) billing off-topic socialising live streaming Sunday, March 28, 2010 27. centralised control there is an organisation which is in control,acts as a one-stop-shop for services an online environment is designed,developed, maintained by them you have to go there to participate in thenetwork it is a closed infrastructureSunday, March 28, 2010 28. examples VLEs such as Moodle, Blackboard Content Management systems such asSharepoint, Drupal portals such iGoogle, Netvibes, Liferay Sunday, March 28, 2010 29. distributed control your desktop is your environment, no oneis in control use all kinds of Web 2.0 tools to assemblean open infrastructure for learning but: tools should somehow beinteroperable (APIs, open social, Open ID,IMS tool interoperability, widgets)Sunday, March 28, 2010 30. examples LinkedIn, FaceBook,Yammer, Academia Mindmeister, Google docs Twitter, Jabber Slideshare Del.icio.us, Zotero, CiteUlike, Connotea Wikipedia, Wikiversity, WikibooksSunday, March 28, 2010 31. 6breakSunday, March 28, 2010 32. 7 in summarysummarise, discuss, report back Sunday, March 28, 2010 33. 1. the problem - design for professionaldevelopment, taking personal andorganisational interests into account2. inspiration - open source developmentshows the way3. a hypothesis - networks for learning, bestmodelled after open source networks?Sunday, March 28, 2010 34. 4. test - use a design-research methodologyfor hypothesis testing5. requirements - look at what we alreadyknow about learning and interaction6. two solution scenarios - differentiatebetween a centralised and distributedapproachSunday, March 28, 2010 35. Yochai BenklerUniversity networks and technical platforms willhave to focus on managing the increasinglypermeable boundaries among universities, andbetween universities and the world outsidethem. University platform design should befocused on ensuring that faculty and studentshave the greatest degree possible of authorityand capacity to act freely, innovate internally, andparticipate externally.Benkler, Y. (2009). The Tower and the Cloud: Higher Education in the Age of CloudComputing. In R. N. Katz (Ed.), The University in the Networked Economy and Society:Challenges and Opportunities (pp. 51-61). Educause. Sunday, March 28, 2010 36. questions 1. How should one piece together out ofexisting parts a learning environment forthe distributed scenario? 2. Is my list of services jointly exhaustive andmutually exclusive? 3. What applications match what services? 4. How can this be made economically viable? Sunday, March 28, 2010 37. Questions?Follow-up mail: peter.sloep ou.nlhttp:pbsloep.nlhttp:celstec.org http:dspace.ou.nl twitter: pbsloepjabber: pbsloep del.icio.us: pbsloep slideshare: pbsloepSunday, March 28, 2010