Presentation for a doctoral seminar at the University of Lancaster, Lancaster, UK, March 24, 2010. The argument put forth is that open, distributed infrastructures are the way go for networked learning, particularly in non-formal settings.
- 1. Designing open infrastructures foropen learning and innovation Peter B. SloepLancaster seminarMarch 24, 2010 Lancaster, UK Sunday, March 28, 2010
2. overview the problem - six use cases inspiration - open source development a hypothesis- Learning Networks test - design research requirements - for learning, for interaction solutions - two scenarios in summary - some questions for youSunday, March 28, 2010 3. 1the problemsix use cases Sunday, March 28, 2010 4. update &upgrade James is a chemical engineerworking for an SME. He wantsto pursue a career as a watermanager with the local waterboard. He therefore needs to update and upgrade his skills. Sunday, March 28, 2010 5. extend Jean, a lawyer working for apharmaceutical company, nds out she needs to expand her knowledge in order to get a more thorough understanding of the science part of the company,in particular about biotechnology.Sunday, March 28, 2010 6. internalknowledgesharing/building A multinational wants to do awaywith its travelling road show of trainers and stimulate itsemployees to study online. They also want to stimulate the build- up of a collective knowledge baseand stimulate the emergence ofcommunities of practice.Sunday, March 28, 2010 7. innovation The association of publiclibraries wants to rethink its role in society and retrain its personel in the process. Collaborative open innovation andcreativity as well as joint sensemaking and learning are key. Sunday, March 28, 2010 8. keeping up todate An SME wants to innovateconstantly and therefore needsto keep its personel up to date.Collaborative open innovation and creativity as well as joint sensemaking and learning are key. Sunday, March 28, 2010 9. world-wide knowledge sharingA large international agencywants to distribute existingknowledge on a particular topic more equitably. Not duplicatingexisting work and world-wide knowledge sharing are key. Sunday, March 28, 2010 10. 2inspiration open source networks Sunday, March 28, 2010 11. Internet technologiesradically undermineorganizational structuresbecause they reduce thecost of communicationsand transactions towardan asymptote of zero (p.171). Hence, go online. Sunday, March 28, 2010 12. This enables theformation of episodiccommunities on demand,so-called virtualorganizations that cometogether frictionlessly fora particular task and thenredistribute to the nexttask just as smoothly. Hence, use a networkedapproach. Sunday, March 28, 2010 13. There are deeper levels to the book micro-foundations, what drives people:pride; being an innovator; self-promotion;doing things together macro-organisation, how to make itwork: co-ordination (individualincentives, shared norms, and leadership),cope with complexity (division of labour)Sunday, March 28, 2010 14. 3 a hypothesisLearning Networks Sunday, March 28, 2010 15. a hypothesis All use cases may be addressed by workingwith Learning Networks, online, socialnetworks that have been modelled afternetworks for open source softwaredevelopment.Sunday, March 28, 2010 16. formalnon-formalinformallearninglearning learninginitialordinary rareout of scopeeducationeducationoccasionpost-initial continuous lifelongout of scope education educationlearningSunday, March 28, 2010 17. A Learning Network = DFan online social network that is specically designed to support lifelong learning and lifelong professional development(note: emphasis on post-initial education) Sunday, March 28, 2010 18. design using web 2.0 technologies forinteraction? using any resource available, but thrivingon open (educational) resources? using open source-like business model:make money through additional services?Sunday, March 28, 2010 19. 4testdesign research Sunday, March 28, 2010 20. theoretical models smoketherapy IaIbS1 S2 S3healthyIc cancer dead therapy Sunday, March 28, 2010 21. such models are tested by predicting futurebehaviour (a hypothesis) and comparing itwith actual behaviour (data) this leads to conrmation, rejection, butusually adaptation of the model Sunday, March 28, 2010 22. a Learning Network is a natural system, butone that is designed for a purpose: artefact its design is based on conrmed knowledgeand to the extent that that is missing, onassumed knowledge (and we never have fullknowledge) so artefacts may fail to do what they weredesigned to doSunday, March 28, 2010 23. targeted state of the system (artefact) is different than the obtained (observed) state St SiSoIthe existence of a difference means: i) our theoretical model is wrong ii) our assumptions are wrong Sunday, March 28, 2010 24. unlike natural systems artefacts are testedfor performance (criteria!) this leads to rejection, acceptance, butusually redesign Sunday, March 28, 2010 25. 5 design requirementsfor learning & support Sunday, March 28, 2010 26. judge (interpret, analyse, classify)requirements for learninglearncompetent, expert anticipate behaviouract (effectively & efciently)Sunday, March 28, 2010 27. specic competent behaviour knowledgepersonal skills learn and attitudesaction theorypersonality traitsSunday, March 28, 2010 28. social learning learning is not passively downloading learning is interactively (re)organising andextending what you know and can do interact: with other agents (environment) organise: maket in with extend: build uponSunday, March 28, 2010 29. design for sociallearning teacherteacherlearning goals to bedesign perceptionactivitiesachieved teacherstudentlearninggoalsdesign perceptionactivitiesachievedWiebe Bijker: interpretative exibility of artefacts (philosophy of technology) Sunday, March 28, 2010 30. support services online prole content provision andmatching e-portfolio coaching (peer, teacher) billing tutoring (peer, teacher) assessment of priorcompetences authoringnetwork visualisation collaboration support Sunday, March 28, 2010 31. 6solutionstwo scenarios Sunday, March 28, 2010 32. centralised control there is an organisation which is in control,acts as a one-stop-shop for services an online environment is designed,developed, maintained by them you have to go there to participate in thenetwork it is a closed infrastructureSunday, March 28, 2010 33. examples VLEs such as Moodle, Blackboard Content Management systems such asSharepoint, Drupal portals such iGoogle, Netvibes, Liferay Sunday, March 28, 2010 34. distributed control your desktop is your environment, no oneis in control use all kinds of Web 2.0 tools to assemblean open infrastructure for learning tools should somehow be interoperable(APIs, specs like open social, IMS spec onTools Interoperability, widgets)Sunday, March 28, 2010 35. examples LinkedIn, FaceBook,Yammer, Academia Mindmeister, Google Docs Twitter, Jabber Slideshare, Google Docs Del.icio.us, Zotero, CiteUlike, Connotea Wikipedia, Wikiversity, WikibooksSunday, March 28, 2010 36. 7 in summarysome questions for you Sunday, March 28, 2010 37. 1. the problem - design for professionaldevelopment, taking personal andorganisational interests into account2. inspiration - open source developmentshows the way3. a hypothesis - networks for learning, bestmodelled after open source networks?Sunday, March 28, 2010 38. 4. test - use a design-research methodologyfor hypothesis testing5. requirements - look at what we alreadyknow about learning and interaction6. two solution scenarios - differentiatebetween a centralised and distributedapproachSunday, March 28, 2010 39. Yochai BenklerUniversity networks and technical platforms willhave to focus on managing the increasinglypermeable boundaries among universities, andbetween universities and the world outsidethem. University platform design should befocused on ensuring that faculty and studentshave the greatest degree possible of authorityand capacity to act freely, innovate internally, andparticipate externally.Benkler, Y. (2009). The Tower and the Cloud: Higher Education in the Age of Cloud Computing.In R. N. Katz (Ed.), The University in the Networked Economy and Society: Challenges andOpportunities (pp. 51-61). Educause. Sunday, March 28, 2010 40. questions 1. Can one piece together out of existingparts a learning environment for thedistributed scenario? 2. Is my list of services jointly exhaustive andmutually exclusive? 3. What applications match what services? 4. How can this be made economically viable? Sunday, March 28, 2010 41. Questions?Follow-up mail: peter.sloep ou.nlhttp:pbsloep.nlhttp:celstec.org http:dspace.ou.nl twitter: pbsloepjabber: pbsloep del.icio.us: pbsloep slideshare: pbsloepSunday, March 28, 2010