Designing and Evaluating Virtual Reality for Learning

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Designing Virtual Reality for EducationDesigning Virtual Reality for EducationFarzana LatifUniversity of Sheffield, United KingdomMy name is Farzana Latif and my role if Technology Enhanced Learning Manager at the University of Sheffield.OutlineWhat is VREducational valueDesigning VRExamplesEnabling technologies and their limitationsHorizonWhat is Virtual Reality?A high-end user interface that involves real time simulation and interaction through multiple sensorial channels (vision, taste, smell, touch)Girgorie and Phillipe (2003)Around since the 60sNow, more achievableMany of you will aware of what Virtual Reality is. Girgorie and Phillipe describe it as a real time simulation which allows integration through different sensorial channels. VR is defiantly not a new phenomom, it has been around since the 1960s. Arguably over the last 20 years becoming a more achievable option and thanks to powerful mobile devices, with the supplement of a google cardboard and some headphones most of us can experience VR with technology we already have. In Virtual Reality you are completely immersed in a digital environment. This is different to Augmented Reality where digital media is imposed on the world around you. This is shown on this mixed reality continuum. I think its important to make this distinction as in some of the literature I have read the two terms sometime get merged. Examplecombines external devicescollaborativeLooking at some modern examples, we can see how some of the more high end virtual reality combine external devices and enable collaboration. The first picture shows someone experiencing a VR fitness game. Supported by the machines that she is standing on, she feels like she is flying and she is improving her fitness levels at the same time. The next image. The two learners can explore and interact with this 3D model together. (Case Western Reserve, Cleveland Clinic). ImmersiveHe thought there was a table thereso immersive you can forget where you are VR can be an extremely immersive expereience, Ronnie O Suullival - world snooker champion trying VR snooker, shows just how immersive it can be as he plays VR snooker. The experience is so real that he forgets he is in a Virtual World. ValueExperience the Un-ExperienceableHistorical, Scientific, MedicalInaccessible placesView from a different perspectiveOrientationsEnvironmental ObservationsImmersive StorytellingSimulated Practice Training to operate complex machinery Dalgarno and Lee (2010)inside the human bodyDesigning for LearningIntended Learning OutcomesAchieved Learning OutcomesEmpathyReificationIdentificationConceptualisation ConstructionDialoguePresenceIdentityCo-PresenceRepresentational Fidelity Learner InteractionLearning RequirementTaskAffordancesLearning Specificationadapted from Fowler 2014pedagogical benefitstechnology benefitslearning experiencepsychological experienceThis model is developed by Fowler and is focused on designing 3D Virtual Learning Environments and is derived from the work of others. outlines the importance of learning valuesleft hand side helps us think about the pedagogical benefitsthese map onto the learning and psychological immersive experiences the right hand side focuses on what the technology itself can offer and enables us to think about how we can achieve this. Representational fidelity - how realistic the scene is, not just how real. One risk with high-fidelity 3-D VLEs is that they will be used to create virtual classrooms that feel and look like real classrooms but lose the opportunity to create pedagogically new and innovative learning environments. Accessible for AllCreating Simple VR experiences. Easier (in terms of time) to create, inexpensive. More accessible option. Can be created and viewed by all. Capturing real world. Creating advanced VR experiences can take time, requires expert skills (e.g. 3D modelling, coding), costly, inaccessible.focusReusable VR experiences, (e.g. Google Expeditions)A number of out of the box VR solutions exist, examples include Google expeditions, which allows you to be immersed in places all over the world and some educators are sharing the VR experiences, the University of Liverpool in the UK have created VR simulations that take you inside the human body. But the problem with using tools like this is that they aresnt necessarily going to be aligned to your educational scenario. On the other hand to create some of the experiences I have showed so far, takes a lot of skills and require high cost devices. So its not always achievable for everyone. As I mentioned I am going to focus on simple VR experiences. To create our VR experience we will be relying on a 360 camera and web based software to edit and share them. These experiences can be viewed with higher end smart phones (that have a gyroscope and now what direction you are looking) and the relatively cheap Google cardboard. There are many camera, how do they compare: you cant get access to a 360 camera, try Google Cardboard Camera on your mobile, it stiches photos togetherGoogle cardboard viewersGoing to focus on creating simpler experiences, that offer pedagogic value and will outline tools that can be used to create these experiences. Image Attributes:HTC ViveGoogle CardboardRicoh ThetaOrientation Labstudents dont enter the lab until year 2they are divided into 2 groupstime is limited, they suffer from anxietyoffers an orientation to labview entire lab, from a different perspectivemake most of contact time, flipped resourceaccess to restricted areasunable to explore the entire labThis first example provides an orientation to a Chemistry Lab. In their Degree in Chemistry students do not actually enter a lab until the 2nd year. Its a very large space and when they do they often feel anxious about the experience. This VR experience was created Orientation - Labcombine existing resourcesembed video and (spatial) audioadd hotspots Orientation - Labno interaction, other than click on viewcamera qualityanalytics - limitedRoundMEYouVisit- view with cardboardgamification, individualised experienceLimitations Landscapetasked with redesigning landscapeaccess is restricted or dangeroussaves travel time and moneyused as a point of reference (spatial knowledge)see things you might have missed83% (n. 30) found this useful as a site referenceoverlay images to recreate the landscapecapture seasons/important to visit as many times as possible LandscapeGoogle street view app- view with cardboardsmellaudioseasons,-1.5617735,3a,75y,340.05h,90t/data=!3m11!1e1!3m9!1s-TmKlO6Tsl0A%2FWG5fL8_aJvI%2FAAAAAAAAARc%2FfPgSlxCA96I8sGEaRAnCLf8oi_l_zPypwCLIB!2e4!3e11!!7i5376!8i2688!9m2!1b1!2i34!6m1!1e1 Fieldworkpreparation for field tripaccess to an area you are unable to viewwhere should the viewer focuskeeping the cameraman out of shotfield trips are expensive and difficult to organisestudents can learn from each others tripstudents can learn from each otherfield trip experiences are expensive and difficult to organisemost value when thereprovide access to those unable to attendOrientation Labfilming time (5 mins-new Ricoh, 25 mins - old Ricoh)camera qualityunable to add hotspotsYouTubeFacebook VideoWondaVR/ThingLinkKaltura(above do not allow editing)Sprawlymore advanced option - GoProVRoverlaying 3D modelsLimitationsEvaluation with StudentsPre and Post TestSuggestions to Improve ExperiencesUsability and Educational EffectivenessPerceived ValueChristine Youngblut (1998) Student WorkConsiderationsExperiences are short lived (THE, 2016)Ergonomics, nausea, pains, dont work well with glassesCreating truly immersive experiences - in built interaction neededMany platforms are in betaQuality of camera and cheap viewersCost of more expensive headsetsCross platform experiencesToo much Interaction can be distractingavoid recreating the real classroom.Fowler (2014) Little evaluation across the sector raises queries of investment vs. impactNear FutureTwo EyesMixed Reality (AR and VR)Education and IndustryHeadset Compatibility Useful ToolsCreating high quality VR can take time, requires expert skillsVR Worlds (3D Social Tools)ALTSpaceVR, vTime and Immersion VR, Edorblecustomisation variesmany in beta modeCodingUnityWebVR3D modelling CoSpaces(beta mode)Out of the BoxGoogle ExpeditionsWeb Interface/No CodingRoundMEHolobuilderSprawly.coVizor.ioBoinx Software


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