Curriculum Leadership

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curriculum leadership, the role of principal in curriculum development in practicum in educational administration

Text of Curriculum Leadership

  • 1. Prepared by: Gerlie Joy D. Gonda

2. Principals are expected to participate not only in the process of curriculum implementation but also in its development. A curriculum is important because it identifies the subjects that need to be taught to and learned by students and how these subjects are taught. The subjects and topics are said to be appropriate for the learners when they are within their realm of knowledge and capacity. 3. Curriculum Basics A curriculum leader is expected to know the basics of curriculum development. A curriculum is basically what students are expected to learn in the classroom and how the lessons are taught. (Farris, 1996) Curriculum refers to all educational experiences students go through in school. 4. A curriculum is often formally prepared by education professionals and experts based on a series of steps that aim to address students learning needs, as well as the needs of the community and the demands of a subject or topic itself. 5. Curricula are often formulated on the national or district level because curriculum development should consider existing community values and expectations. Each curriculum is unique on its own as it reflects local realities and is based on a socially accepted educational philosophy. 6. How is curriculum formulated at the school level? A school curriculum is created by a committee composed of school heads, teachers, and parents. The committee drafts a curriculum based on local needs. This is presented to district leaders or supervisors for approval revision. The final draft is then given to a national board of education, where there is one, for final approval. 7. Curriculum Development Models A curriculum development model combines the ideals and principles of education that are translated into a framework. This framework is then developed into a curriculum for implementation in actual school settings. 8. A. The Tyler Model The model developed by Ralph W. Tyler is perhaps the most widely applied (Kellough and Kellough, 1996). Tylers model first appeared in 1949 in his book Basic Principles of Curriculum and Instruction. This model is still popularly used in many countries because of its simplicity and clarity. Tylers model is also known as the objectives, rational, or means-end model (Marsh, 1992). 9. 1. What educational purposes do you seek to attain? 2. How can learning experiences be selected which are likely to be useful in attaining these objectives? 3. How can learning experiences be organized for effective instruction? 4. How can the effectiveness of the learning experiences be evaluated? 10. 1. Determining Learning Objectives What educational purpose do you seek to attain? 2. Selecting and Creating Appropriate Learning Experiences What learning experiences can be selected or created are likely to be useful in attaining the learning objectives 3. Organizing Learning Experiences How can the learning experiences be organized for effective instruction? 4. Evaluating the Curriculum How can the effectiveness of the learning experiences be evaluated? RalphTylersPrinciples 11. The rationale for Tylers curriculum Student Subject Specialist Contemporary Society Tentative General Objectives/Goals Philosophy of Education Psychology of Learning Precise Instructional Objectives 12. B. The Kellough and Kellough Model Another model of curriculum development is that of Kellough and Kellough (1996). The model provides additional screens to those identified by Tyler. These include: Educational philosophy Effects of groups outside the classroom/school Assessment procedures Mechanisms for revision 13. Needs of the Society What should these students learn to help them function better in society? What acceptable social values can be taught through the topics chosen? What does society expect of the students in the long-term? 14. Needs of the Subject Is there an adequate number of well trained teachers to teach the subjects to the students? Are there enough laboratory equipment for the topics? Are there available instructional materials on the topics included? 15. Educational Philosophy Educational philosophy refers to the basic principles followed in laying down the subjects to be included in the curriculum and how these subjects will be taught. -refers to a theory that maybe used to guide the selection of topics and activities. 16. Extraneous Influences Extraneous influences are factors from outside the school. Curriculum development is affected by international, national and local interest, actions and realities. 17. Educational Plan This component basically covers the topics to be taught and how the instruction is to be delivered. Content: Includes information and activities to be covered Instruction: Refers to the teaching strategies to use Scope: refers to the depth and breadth of the educational experience Sequence: refers to the order of presentation of the learning experience 18. Evaluation and Revision This component is important because a curriculum has to be consistently monitored and evaluated for continuous program improvement. The results of evaluation of the original curriculum are used as basis for the curriculums continuous improvement. 19. Curriculum Leadership Leadership refers to the role you play in helping enable your school community to achieve your goals. Curriculum refers to all the experiences that learners go through in a program of education. The school takes responsibility for all these planned experiences. Curriculum leadership pushes you to exercise functions that enable the achievement of your goal to provide quality education to your learners. 20. Leadership focuses both on what is being learned (the curriculum) and how it is taught (the instruction). Being the school head, you are responsible for making sure that your school has a quality curriculum and that the curriculum is implemented effectively. 21. The Role and Functions of a Curriculum Leader As curriculum leader, you need to know how curriculum design informs instructional design. Glatthorn (1997) provides us with a list of essential functions of curriculum leadership carried out at the school and classroom levels. 22. Curriculum leadership functions at the school level to: Develop the schools vision of quality curriculum. Supplement the national or divisional educational goals. Develop the schools own program of studies. Develop a learning-centered schedule. Determine the nature and extent of curriculum integration. Align the curriculum Monitor and assist in curriculum implementation 23. Curriculum leadership functions at the classroom level to: Develop yearly planning calendars for operationalizing the curriculum. Develop units of study. Enrich the curriculum and remediate learning. Evaluate the curriculum 24. The Four Major Task of Curriculum Leadership Ensuring curriculum quality and applicability Integrating and aligning the curriculum Implementing the curriculum efficiently and effectively Regularly evaluating, enriching, and updating the curriculum 25. The Challenges in Practicing Curriculum Leadership Fast-paced change impacting on the curriculum Curriculum design that unresponsive to local needs Lack of resources for proper implementation of curriculum content Lack of organizational support 26. The Challenges in Practicing Curriculum Leadership Lack of freedom and authority to exercise leadership role Being overburdened with varied administrative functions Inadequate reward systems Unfavorable school and school district policies