Critical Thinking

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  • 1. 10/10/2010 LANE-462-CA-2011 Everyone thinks .. Everyone thinks; it is our nature to do so. Butmuch of our thinking, left to itself, is biased,unclear, partial, uninformed or down-rightprejudiced. Yet the quality of our life and thatof what we produce, make, or build dependsprecisely on the quality of our thought. Poor Critical Thinkingthinking is costly, both in money and inquality of life. Excellence in thought, By: Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar http://wwwdrshadiabanjar.blogspot.comhowever, must be systematically cultivated. - Richard Paul 7/25/2010Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 2 Critical Thinking HistorySocratesSocrates 400 BC2,500 years ago Socrates established theQuestioningimportance of asking deep questions,Inquiringseeking evidence, analyzing basic conceptsSearch for meaningbefore we accept ideas as worthy ofbeliefs . Search for truth 7/25/2010Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 37/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 4Plato, Aristotle, Greek skeptics In the middle agesThomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica)Plato, Aristotle, and Greek skepticsemphasized that things are often very Thomas Aquinas (Sumna Theologica)different from what they appear to be and ensures that his thinking met the tests ofthat only the trained mind is prepared to see critical thinkers by answering criticisms of histhough the way thing look to us on theideas.surface. 7/25/2010Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 57/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 6 1

2. 10/10/2010 15th & 16th C. (Renaissance) European scholarsFrancis Bacon in England wrote The Advancement of Learning, (Colet, Erasmus, More in England)the 1st book in critical thinking. started thinking critically about religion, art, argued for the importance of studying society, human, law, and freedom.the world empirically.laid the foundation for modern sciencewith his emphasis on the information-gathered process. 7/25/2010Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar7 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar8Francis Bacon Descartes in France50 years laterSir Thomas More in England Father of the Scientific Method Descartes in France We must become as little children in order to wrote the 2nd book Rules for the Direction of the Mind enter the kingdom of science- developed a method of critical thought based on the principle of systematic doubt.In the same period, Sir Thomas More:- developed a model for a new social order Utopia in which every domain the present world was subject to critique. 7/25/2010Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar9 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar10 16th &17th C. Hobbes & Locke17th & 18th C. - not to accept the traditional cultural beliefs dominant in the thinking of their day as being Robert Boyle & Isaac Newton in Chemistry & rational and normal.nature - everything in the world should be explained other French thinkers in sociology & politics by evidence and reasoning.Adam Smith produces Wealth of Nations in economics 7/25/2010Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar117/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar122 3. 10/10/2010 20th C.19th C.Number of thinkers have increased in every Darwin's Descent of Man in the biologicaldomain of human thought and within whichdomain focused on the history of human reasoning takes place.culture and the basis of biological life Dewey 1930s Sigmund Freud study in the unconscious Ennis 1980sdomain.Plus other studies in the Anthropological &Linguistics domains. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 13 7/25/2010Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 14Dewey EnnisReflective Thinking Critical thinking is reasonable, reflective Dispositions of thinking Native Resourcesthinking focused on deciding what to believe or Open mindedness Curiositydo. Whole heartedness Suggestion Intellectual Responsibility Orderliness 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 15 7/25/2010Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 16 Ennis - Actions a learner usually Ennis - Actions a learner usually must take in must take in order to think criticallyorder to think critically Judge the credibility of sources Ask appropriate clarifying questions Identify conclusions, reasons and assumptions Plan experiments and judge experimental designs Judge the quality of an argument including the Define terms in a way appropriate for the contextacceptability of its reasons, assumptions, and evidence Be open-minded Try to be well-informed Develop and defend a position on an issue Draw conclusions when warranted, but with caution 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 17 7/25/2010Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 18 3 4. 10/10/2010 What Is Critical Thinking? ThusStudents in school should be taughthow to think critically. Classes shouldbe designed based on reasoning andCritical thinking is the ability to apply reasoning andlogic to unfamiliar ideas, opinions, and situations.rational grounds and not as series ofThinking critically involves seeing things in an open-facts.minded way. This important skill allows people to lookpast their own views of the world and to adopt a moreaware way of viewing the world.What is Critical Thinking? 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar197/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 20HOW DO YOU DEFINE CRITICALDefinition of Critical ThinkingTHINKING? pursuit of relevant andcorrect thinking in the Critical thinking means reliable knowledgeabout the world. reflective, way to describe it skillful thinking Another responsible, andis reasonable, that is focused on deciding what to believe ordo.7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar217/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 22 Critical thinking is not being able to processTrue critical thinking is higher-order thinking,enabling a person to, for example, responsibly information well enough to know to stop for red lights orjudge between political candidates, serve on a whether you received the correct change at the murder trial jury, evaluate society's need for supermarket. nuclear power plants, and assess the Such low-order thinking, critical and useful though it may be, is sufficient only for personal survival; mostconsequences of global warming.Critical thinking enables an individual to be a individuals master this. responsible citizen who contributes to society, andnot be merely a consumer of society'sdistractions.7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar237/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 244 5. 10/10/2010 A person who thinks critically can ask appropriatequestions, gather relevant information, efficiently Critical thinking cannot be taught reliably toand creatively sort through this information, reasonstudents by peers or by most parents.logically from this information, and come to reliable Trained and knowledgeable instructors arenecessary to impart the proper information andand trustworthy conclusions about the world thatenable one to live and act successfully in it.skills. Children are not born with the power to think Critical thinking can be described as thescientific method applied by ordinarycritically, nor do they develop this ability naturallybeyond survival-level thinking. Critical thinking is apeople to the ordinary world.learned ability that must be taught. Most individualsnever learn it.7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 25 7/25/2010Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 26 methodtruescientific investigation: a question theidentified, anThis isof because critical thinking mimics iswell-known Critical thinking is the ability to think for one's self andhypothesis formulated, relevant data sought and gathered,reliably and responsibly make those decisions that affectthe hypothesis is logically tested and evaluated, and reliable one's life. conclusions are drawn from the result. All of the skills of scientific investigation are matched by Critical thinking is also critical inquiry, so such critical thinkers investigate problems, ask questions, pose newcritical thinking, which is therefore nothing more thanscientific method used in everyday life rather than in answers that challenge the status quo, discover newspecifically scientific disciplines or endeavors.information that can be used for good or ill, question Critical thinking is scientific thinking.A scientifically-literate person, such as a math or science authorities and traditional beliefs, challenge received dogmas and doctrines, and often end up possessing powerinstructor, has learned to think critically to achieve that level in society greater than their numbers.of scientific awareness. But any individual with an advanceddegree in any university discipline has almost certainly learnedthe techniques of critical thinking.7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 27 7/25/2010Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 28 small number ofa critical thinkers, that learning,can tolerate only aIt may be that workable society or culture internalizing, and describedthinkinga has many components. Life caneachCriticalbeassequence of problems that practicing scientific and critical thinking is discouraged. Most individual must solve for one's self. Critical thinking skills people are followers of authority: most do not question, are not are nothing more than problem solving skills that result curious, and do not challenge authority figures who claimin reliable knowledge. Humans constantly process special knowledge or insight. Most people, therefore, do not information. Critical thinking is the practice of processing think for themselves, but rely on others to think for them. Most this information in the most skillful, accurate, and people indulge in wishful, hopeful, and emotional thinking,rigorous manner possible, in such a way that it leads to believing that what they believe is true because they wish it, the most reliable, logical, and trustworthy conclusions, hope it, or feel it to be true. Most people, therefore, do not think upon which one can make responsible decisions about's life, behavior, and actions with full knowledge ofassumptions and consequences of those decisions. 7/25/2010 Dr. Shadia Yousef Banjar 29 7/25/2010Dr. Shadia Yousef Ba