constructive pedagogy is now emerging in the scenarion of education.
Text of Constructivist pedagogy
1. Dr B CMondal S T T College Purulia WB
Pedagogy, the science of teaching and learning, is based on the theories of learning.
The salient features of 20 thcentury pedagogy
Well structured education system
drill and practice
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In the late 1970s and 1980s many educationist began to criticize the teaching learning practice based on behaviorist school. Through this teaching the students failed to
Develop ability to work collaboratively
Construct knowledge independently and collaboratively
Develop divergent thinking for discovering new things
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Mechanical teaching-learning strategies
Focus on memorization
Teacher dominated methodology
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Constructivism is basically a theory - based on observation and scientific study -- about how people learn. It says that people construct their own understanding and knowledge of the world, through experiencing things and reflecting on those experiences. When we encounter something new, we have to reconcile it with our previous ideas and experience, may be changing what we believe, or may be discarding the new information as irrelevant.
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An approach to learning in which learners are provided the opportunity to construct their own sense of what is being learned by building internal connection or relationship among the ideas and facts being taught.
Borich and Tombari (1997 )
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Human are not passive information receiver. Human are active information receiver, they build network of information with their previous information and they assimilate or accommodate new knowledge with the old information in order to build their own understanding of the new information.
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Assimilation of Ideas
Discovery and Invention of Knowledge
Critical and Reflective Thinking
Development of Creativity
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Ernest, Brooks and Brooks (1999)offer five guiding principles of constructivism that can be applied to the classroom.
The first principle is posing problems of emerging relevance to students. A focus on students' interests and using their previous knowledge as a departure point helps students engage and become motivated to learn. The relevant questions posed to the students will force them to ponder and question their thoughts and conceptions.
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Another guiding principle is structuring learning around primary concepts. This refers to building lessons around main ideas or concepts, instead of exposing students to segmented and disjoint topics that may or may not relate to each other. "The use of broad concepts invites each student to participate irrespective of individual styles, temperaments, and dispositions"
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The third principle is seeking and valuing students' points of view. This principle allows for access to students' reasoning and thinking processes, which in turn allows teachers to further challenge students in order to make learning meaningful.
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Adapting curriculum to address students' suppositions is the fourth principle. "The adaptation of curricular tasks to address student suppositions is a function of the cognitive demands implicit in specific tasks (the curriculum) and the nature of the questions posed by the students engaged in these tasks (the suppositions)".
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The final principle is assessing student learning in the context of teaching. Authentic assessment is best achieved through teaching; interactions between both teacher and student, and student and student; and observing students in meaningful tasks.
Inquiry Oriented Constructivist Model:Introduction phase, Puzzling situation, Data gathering/Experimentation by students, Hypothesizing and explaining, Analyzing the inquiry process
The 5 Es Model: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate
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Discovery Learning- Math Consensus with 3rd Graders - YouTube.flv
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There have been ongoing calls for constructivist teaching based on the constructivist views of learning during the past decade. The reason of such advocacy is as a result of the search for betterways of teaching and learning because both researchers and teachers have noted persistent shortfalls in learners' understanding and of passive approaches to learning across all ages and grades. There are philosophical and psychological arguments to support constructivist educational practices. Philosophically, the individual has to construct or reconstruct what things mean because the stimuli we encounter are never logically sufficient to convey the message. Psychologically, research shows that active engagement in learning may lead to better retention, understanding and active use of knowledge.