Constructivist Learning2008

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Overview of constructivist learning principles

Text of Constructivist Learning2008

  • 1.Constructivist Learning Educational Psychology

2. What is Constructivist Learning Theory?

  • The essence of constructivist theory is the idea thatlearners must individually discover and transform complex informationif they are to make it their own. (p. 243)
  • Thus, Constructivist Learning Theory is concerned with:
    • How learners make (construct) meaning from their own experiences.
    • How teachers can organize learning experiences to aid students in meaning-making.

3. Brain Research & Constructivist Learning

  • The brain is a complex adaptive system
    • Perhaps the most potent feature of the brain is its capacity to function on many levels and in many ways simultaneously.
    • Thoughts, emotions, imagination, predispositions and physiology operate concurrently and interactively as the entire system interacts with and exchanges information with its environment.
    • Moreover, there are emergent properties of the brain as a whole system that can not be recognized nor understood when the parts alone are explored.

4. Brain Research & Constructivist Learning

  • The Brain is Plastic
    • Its hard wiring is shaped by the experiences that people have. The brain can rewire: itself with every new stimulation, experience, and behavior
    • There are predetermined sequences of development in childhood, including windows of opportunity for laying down the basic hardware necessary for later learning. This results in tremendous dendrite growth and subsequent pruning.
    • That is why new languages as well as the arts ought to be introduced to children very early in life.
    • And finally, in many respects there is no limit to growth and to the capacities of humans to learn more. Neurons continue to be capable of making new connections throughout life.

5. Brain Research & Constructivist Learning

  • The search for meaning is innate.
    • In general terms the search for meaning refers to making sense of our experiences.
    • This is survival-oriented and basic to the human brain.
    • While the ways in which we make sense of our experience change over time, the central drive to do so is life long.
    • Something of the extent of human purposes was expressed by Maslow. Thus, the search for meaning ranges from the need to eat and find safety, through the development of relationships and a sense of identity, to an exploration of our potential and the quest for transcendence.

6. Brain Research & Constructivist Learning

  • Learning occurs through" patterning".
    • In patterning we include schematic maps and categories, both acquired and innate.
    • The brain needs and automatically registers the familiar while simultaneously searching for and responding to novel stimuli.
    • The brain is both scientist and artist, attempting to discern and understand patterns as they occur and giving expression to unique and creative patterns of its own.
    • It resists having meaninglessness imposed on it as in isolated pieces of information unrelated to what makes sense to a particular learner.

7. Brain Research & Constructivist Learning

  • Emotions are critical to patterning
    • What we learn is influenced and organized by emotions and involving expectations, personal biases and prejudices, self-esteem and the need for social interaction.
    • Emotions and thoughts literally shape each other and cannot be separated. Emotions color meaning.
    • Moreover, the emotional impact of any learning may continue to reverberate long after the specific event that triggers it.

8. Brain Research & Constructivist Learning

  • Every brain simultaneously perceives and creates parts and wholes .
    • Although there is some truth to the "left-brain right-brain" distinction, that is not the whole story.
    • In a healthy person, both hemispheres interact in every activity, from art and computing to sales and accounting.
    • The "two brain" doctrine is most useful for reminding us that the brain reduces information into parts and perceives holistically at the same time.
    • Effective education recognize this, for instance, by introducing natural "global" projects and ideas from the very beginning

9. Gestalt Psychology

  • a theory of mind and brain that proposes that the operational principle of the brain isholistic , parallel, and analog, with self-organizing tendencies; or, that the whole is greater than the sum of its parts.

10. Gestalt Laws of Patterning 11. Olny srmat poelpe can raed tihs.

  • I cdnuolt blveiee taht I cluod aulaclty uesdnatnrd waht I was rdanieg. Tihs shwos the phaonmneal pweor of the hmuan mnid, aoccdrnig to a rscheearch at Cmabrigde Uinervtisy. It deosnt mttaer in waht oredr the ltteers in a wrod are, the olny iprmoatnt tihng is taht the frist and lsat ltteer be in the rghit pclae. The rset can be a taotl mses and you can sitll raed it wouthit a porbelm.
  • Tihs is bcuseae the huamn mnid deos not raed ervey lteter by istlef, but the wrod as a wlohe. Amzanig huh? yaeh and oyu awlyas tghuhot slpeling was ipmorantt!

12. Count every F in the following text


13. Read the following 14. Left/Right Hemisphere Processing 15. Proximity 16. Optical Illusions 17. Optical Illusions 18. Optical Illusions 19. Optical Illusions 20. Optical Illusions 21. Optical Illusions 22. Optical Illusions 23. Faces in Strange Places 24. Faces in Strange Places 25. Faces in Strange Places 26. Jerome Bruners Theory

  • Learning is an active process in which learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge.
  • The learner selects and transforms information, constructs hypotheses, and makes decisions, relying on a cognitive structure to do so.
  • Cognitive structure (i.e., schema, mental models) provides meaning and organization to experiences and allows the individual to "go beyond the information given".

27. Jerome Bruner

  • Teachers need
    • To understand the relationship between motivation and learning.
    • To understand how structure relates to the whole.
    • To learn to form "global concepts.
    • To learn how to build "coherent patterns of learning.
    • To understand that facts without meaning or context are not learned.To believe that any subject can be taught to any child.

28. Jerome Bruner Three Modes of Presentation

    • Enactive Representation
      • Learning through action
      • Learning through demonstration
      • Learning through nonverbal interactions
    • Iconic Representation
      • Pictures
      • Diagrams
      • Images
    • Symbolic Representation
      • Experience is translated into language
      • Concepts and Ideas

29. Jerome Bruner Sequencing

    • The simplest sequence is:
      • Enactive
      • Iconic
      • Symbolic
    • Discovery sequencing
      • Inductive reasoning
      • Problem solving
    • Deductive sequencing
      • Going from generalizations to specifics
      • (Wholeparts)
      • Cause-effect

30. Domains of Learning

  • Cognitive Domain
    • Blooms Taxonomy
  • Psychomotor Domain
  • Affective Domain

31. Blooms Taxonomy

  • Knowledge (recall)
  • Comprehension
  • Application
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Evaluation

32. Critical Thinking 33. Bernice McCarthy & 4-MAT McCarthy's 4MAT Model 34. Learning Style Inventories

  • The Learning Style Questionnaire
  • Myers-Briggs Inventory

35. Theories of Multiple Intelligence

  • Robert Ste