- 1. CONSTRUCTIVISTAPPROACH TOTEACHING ANDLEARNINGCreated By Christy F.
2. Constructivist Approachto Teaching and Learning Overview of Constructivism Theorists supporting Constructivism How Constructivism is Applied in theClassroom My Constructivist Classroom 3. Overview of Constructivism The theory of constructivism is anapproach to learning suggesting thatchildren must construct their ownunderstandings of the world in which theylive. In comparison to behaviorism, the learneris not a blank slate (tabula rasa), butinstead brings past experiences andcultural factors to a situation and newinformation is constructed from priorNextknowledge. 4. Overview of Constructivism Learners construct their ownunderstanding and knowledge of the worldthrough experiencing things and reflectingon those experiences. Learning is an active, contextualizedprocess of constructing knowledge ratherthan acquiring it. Information must be mentally actedon, manipulated, and transformed bylearners in order to have meaning.Main Menu 5. Theorists SupportingConstructivism Jean Piaget (1896-1980): Stages of Cognitive Development John Dewey (1859-1952): Progressive Education Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934): Social Development Theory Jerome Bruner (1915 -) Discovery Learning TheoryMain Menu 6. Piagets Theory of CognitiveDevelopment Piaget proposed that cognitive developmentfollowed an invariant sequence from infancythrough adolescence. His particular insight was the role ofmaturation in childrens increasing capacity tounderstand their world: they cannot undertakecertain tasks until they are psychologicallymature enough to do so.Next 7. Piagets Four Stages of CognitiveDevelopment Sensori-motor (Birth-2 yrs) Differentiates self from objects Recognizes self as agent of action and begins to act intentionally: e.g. pulls a string to set mobile in motion or shakes a rattle to make a noise. Achieves object permanence: realizes that things continue to exist even when no longer present or seen. Pre-operational (2-7 years) Learns to use language and to represent objects by images and words. Thinking is still egocentric: has difficulty taking the viewpoint of others. Classifies objects by a single feature: e.g. groups together all the red blocks regardless of shape or all the square blocks regardless of color.Next 8. Piagets Four Stages of CognitiveDevelopment Concrete operational(7-11 years) Can think logically about objects andevents. Achieves conservation of number (age6), mass (age 7), and weight (age 9).Classifies objects according to several features andcan order them in series along a single dimensionsuch as size. Formal operational(11 years and up) Can think logically about abstractpropositions and test hypothesessystematically. Becomes concerned with thehypothetical, the future, and ideological problems. Main Menu 9. How Constructivism is Applied in theClassroom Teachers should have lessons where hands- on experimentation, problem solving, logical reasoning, and authentic learning are emphasized. Teachers should generally behave in an interactive manner mediating the environment for students where student questions are highly valued.Next 10. How Constructivism is Applied in theClassroom Teachers should seek the students point of view in order to understand student learning for use in subsequent lessons. Assessment of student learning should be interwoven with teaching and occur through teacher observation of students at work and through presentations and portfolios. Main Menu 11. My Constructivist Classroom In order to follow the principles behindconstructive cognitive development I willincorporate the following strategies in myclassroom: Providescaffolding to extend students Zone ofProximal Development Involvestudents in activities which engage themind as well as the hands. Next 12. My Constructivist Classroom Continued: Have students work in groups often Initiategroup discussions and debates allowing students to share their own thoughts and opinions Main Menu