Computer LearningAssisted Language
Computer Learning Assisted LanguageCALL
CALLCALL can be categorized in terms of three some what distinct phases which I will refer to as:
Behavioristic CALLCommunicative CALLIntegrative CALL
Behavioristic CALLThe first phase of CALL conceived in the 1950s and implemented in the 1960s and '70s. Programs of this phase entailed repetitive language drills and can be referred to as "drill and practice.
Drill and practice courseware is based on the model of computer as tutor (Taylor 1980) .
Repeated exposure to the same material is beneficial or even essential to learning.A computer is ideal for carrying out repeated drills and it can provide immediate non-judgmental feedback.A computer can present such material on an individualized basis, allowing students to proceed at their own pace and freeing up class time for other activities
The second phase of CALL was based on the communicative approach to teaching which became prominent in the 1970s and 80s.
One of the main advocates of this new approach was John Underwood, who in 1984 proposed a series of "Premises for 'Communicative' CALL" (Underwood 1984:52).
Teaches grammar implicitly rather than explicitly.Allows and encourages students to generate original utterances rather than just manipulate prefabricated language.Avoids telling students they are wrong and is flexible to a variety of student responses.will never try to do anything that a book can do just as well.
INTEGRATIVE CALLMultimedia technology - exemplified today by the CD-ROM - allows a variety of media (text, graphics, sound, animation, and video) to be accessed on a single machine.skills are easily integrated, since the variety of media make it natural to combine reading, writing, speaking and listening in a single activity.Using the WWW, students can search through millions of files around the world within minutes to locate and access authentic materials: newspaper and magazine radio broadcasts, short videos.
ICT and Development.
ICT is a fundamental part of economic growth especially for the so-termed knowledge economy.
The history of the internet is part of the reason for the sknew in conectivity between developed and developing countries.
Most measures of ICT deal with infraestructure, or indirect measures of user capacity, such as literacy.
Many applications of ICT for developing regions today are trickle-down instead of purposely developed.
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Rschoff B. (1993) "Language learning and information technology: state of the art",CALICO Journal10, 3: 5-17.